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8 Project Quality Management

Project Quality Management includes the processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.

Project Quality Management uses policies and procedures to implement, within the project’s context, the organization’s quality management system and, as appropriate, it supports continuous process improvement activities as undertaken on behalf of the performing organization. Project Quality Management works to ensure that the project requirements, including product requirements, are met and validated.

Processes of Project Quality Management

  • 8.1 Plan Quality Mgt.
  • 8.2 Manage Quality
  • 8.3 Control Quality

8.0 Project Quality Mgt.

Tailoring Considerations

A key consideration for tailoring a project’s quality management processes is how the organization addresses quality management through continuous improvement, auditing, and compliance to the standards and regulatory requirements expected of the organization and its products.

8.0 Project Quality Mgt.

Agile Considerations and Emerging Practices

In order to adequately manage quality during the incremental and frequent delivery cycles of an agile project, smaller-batch systems aim to uncover defects earlier in the project, when overall costs of change in processes or procedures will be lower.

The use of continuous improvement is an important emerging practice (it is not necessarily new, but is becoming more applicable to all industries and hence all types of projects and organizations). Continuous improvement incorporates several effective quality management methodologies, such as plan-do-check-act (PDCA), total quality management (TQM), six sigma, and lean six sigma. These practices are used to improve both the quality of project management and that of the final product. Effective implementation of continuous improvement can lead an organization to the higher-order quality management status mentioned earlier, whereby the organization can create a culture of quality awareness and commitment.

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9 Project Resource Management

Project Resource Management includes the processes that identify, acquire, and manage the resources needed for the successful completion of the project. These processes help ensure that the right resources will be available to the project manager and the project team at the right time and place.

Processes of Project Resource Management

  • 9.1 Plan Resource Mgt.
  • 9.2 Estimate Activity Resources
  • 9.3 Acquire Resources
  • 9.4 Develop Team
  • 9.5 Manage Team
  • 9.6 Control Resources

9.0 Project Resource Mgt.

Tailoring Considerations

A few tailoring considerations related to project resources that a project manager should be sensitive to are the diversity background of the team, their location, and how they may be acquired for the project. This also applies to physical resources in terms of location and acquisition. The uniqueness of the project and its life cycle approach may require team resources to be trained, and organizational resources may dictate alternative methods of team development.

9.0 Project Resource Mgt.

Agile Considerations and Emerging Practices

Regardless of which project life cycle approach is used, project management styles have been shifting away from a command-and-control structure and toward a more collaborative and supportive management approach. This helps empower teams by delegating decision making to them.

Projects with high variation, such as adaptive or agile projects, benefit greatly from high collaboration and supported team infrastructures. They achieve greater flexibility, improved communications, increased innovation, and accelerated integration into their work activities.
The increased use of agile approaches has led to the rise of self-organizing teams, where the team functions without central control.

Globalization, the scarcity of specialized skills, and the availability of communication technology such as audio conferencing, web-based meetings, and video conferencing have enabled virtual team capabilities and changed how a project manager facilitates team management and development.

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10 Project Communications Management

Project Communications Management includes the processes that are required to ensure timely and appropriate planning, collection, creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, management, control, monitoring, and the ultimate disposition of project information. Project managers spend most of their time communicating with team members and other project stakeholders, whether they are internal (at all organizational levels) or external to the organization. Effective communication creates a bridge between diverse stakeholders who may have different cultural and organizational backgrounds, different levels of expertise, and different perspectives and interests, which impact or have an influence upon the project execution or outcome.

Processes of Project Communications Management

  • 10.1 Plan Communications Mgt.
  • 10.2 Manage Communications
  • 10.3 Monitor Communications<

10.0 Project Communications Mgt.

Tailoring Considerations

Communications management is highly impacted by factors such as the physical location of team members and the availability of certain communication technology. The project manager will need to be aware of these factors to tailor project communications for greater effect and success.

10.0 Project Communications Mgt.

Agile Considerations and Emerging Practices

Due to their iterative nature, agile projects will create greater demands on the frequency of project communications. Project managers must consider the project life cycle approach when developing the communications plan. Some emerging trends in project communications facilitate communication through the use of increased use of social computing in the form social media services and personal electronic devices.

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11 Project Risk Management

Project Risk Management includes the processes of conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, response planning, and controlling risk on a project. The objectives of project risk management are to increase the likelihood and impact of positive events, and decrease the likelihood and impact of negative events in the project.

Processes of Project Risk Management

  • 11.1 Plan Risk Mgt.
  • 11.2 Identify Risks
  • 11.3 Qual. Risk Analysis
  • 11.4 Quant. Risk Analysis
  • 11.5 Plan Risk Responses
  • 11.6 Implement Risk Responses
  • 11.7 Monitor Risks

11.0 Project Risk Mgt.

Tailoring Considerations

Some of the factors that should be considered when tailoring risk management practices are project size, complexity, and importance. A project’s size in terms of budget, schedule, or duration will give good reason to plan risk management to the uniqueness of the project. Project complexity can be greater on projects with high levels of innovation or significant technology interfaces.
While all projects are important or they would not be undertaken, some can be considerably more important if they are aligned with the strategic direction of the organization or are necessary to sustain business.

11.0 Project Risk Mgt.

Agile Considerations and Emerging Practices

Agile or adaptive projects have higher variability and thus are inherently susceptible to more risk and uncertainty. Project managers need to be aware of the project approach when planning and managing risk.
One of the growing trends in risk management that may need to be considered in a risk management plan is the recognition of non-event risks. Most projects focus on the risks that are uncertain future events, but there are also two types of non-event risks that may creep into a project:

  • Variability risk is a type of risk that is uncertainty related to characteristics of planned events, activities, or processes. Examples might include higher or lower product defect rates or even weather conditions during construction phases of projects.
  • Ambiguity risk is a type of risk that is uncertainty about what might happen in the future in areas such as compliance and regulatory requirements or external technology developments.

Emergent risks are also being recognized with a growing awareness of “unknowable-unknowns,” which are risks that can only be recognized after they have occurred. Emergent risks can’t necessarily be predicted and planned for, but “project resilience” strategies can be incorporated into projects to help minimize the impact of these risks. Some strategies are

  • Budget and schedule contingency
  • Flexible project processes
  • Empowered project teams that are trusted to respond and adapt
  • Review frequency can be increased to help identify warning signs of emerging risks

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12 Project Procurement Management

Project Procurement Management includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products, services, or results needed from outside the project team. The organization can be either the buyer or seller of the products, services or results of a project. Project Procurement Management includes the contract management and change control processes required to develop and administer contracts or purchase orders issued by authorized project team members. Project Procurement Management also includes controlling any contract issued by an outside organization (the buyer) that is acquiring deliverables from the project from the performing organization (the seller), and administering contractual obligations placed on the project team by the contract.

Processes of Project Procurement Management

12.0 Project Procurement Mgt.

Tailoring Considerations

The unique needs of projects play a role in procurement based on things such as the location of sellers and whether or not they are in the same time zone or country. Tailoring project needs based on procurement complexity is also a consideration. A project may need multiple sellers or a series of different contracts at key milestones throughout the project. It is the project manager’s responsibility to determine the specific needs of the project and ensure the availability of contractors is consistent with the work requirements of the project.

12.0 Project Procurement Mgt.

Agile Considerations and Emerging Practices

Some contractors or sellers may not be acclimated to agile or adaptive project life cycles. The project manager will need to ensure that collaboration and team work is a high priority at these times.
Project managers must also be aware of trends and emerging practices related to procurement. For example, online tools are now available that give buyers a central point where procurements can be advertised, which also provide sellers a single place to find procurement documents.

Changing contract processes are also a big shift over the past few years. Many projects are global in scale, requiring the adherence to internationally recognized standards for contract forms, claims, and other administrative assets. These global projects also put heavy emphasis on the planning and management of logistics and supply chain.

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13 Project Stakeholder Engagement

Project Stakeholder Engagement includes the processes required to identify the people, groups, or organizations that could impact or be impacted by the project, to analyze stakeholder expectations and their impact on the project, and to develop appropriate management strategies for effectively engaging stakeholders in project decisions and execution. Stakeholder engagement also focuses on continuous communication with stakeholders to understand their needs and expectations, addressing issues as they occur, managing conflicting interests and fostering appropriate stakeholder engagement in project decisions and activities. Stakeholder satisfaction should be managed as a key project objective.

Processes of Project Stakeholder Engagement

  • 13.1 Identify Stakeholders
  • 13.2 Plan Stakeholder Engagement
  • 13.3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement
  • 13.4 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement

13.0 Project Stakeholder Mgt.

Tailoring Considerations

The unique aspects of a project require the project manager to deal with stakeholder diversity so that the project manager may recognize the different communities and cultures represented by various stakeholders. Stakeholder complexity should also be addressed depending on the breadth of communities a stakeholder participates in. The more complex information, or misinformation, a stakeholder receives from their community can play a role in how a project manager engages stakeholders.

13.0 Project Stakeholder Mgt.

Agile Considerations and Emerging Practices

The volatility of a project should dictate how a project manager engages stakeholders and how the team is managed and developed. Adaptive teams engage with stakeholders directly. Many times, in these types of projects, clients, users, and developers exchange information and collaborate in a dynamic co-creative process that leads to higher stakeholder involvement.
As the field of project management continues to expand, the definition of a “stakeholder” is broadening to include parties external to the organization conducting the project. Groups such as regulators, environmentalists, financial organizations, media, and lobby groups may be identified as stakeholders if they are affected by the work and have a vested interest in the outcome of the project.

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10.1 Plan Communications Management

Plan Communications Management is the process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communications based on stakeholders' information needs and requirements, and available organizational assets. The key benefit of this process is that it identifies and documents the approach to communicate most effectively and efficiently with stakeholders.
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Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.
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Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.
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Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.
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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
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Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.
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Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.
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Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.
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Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
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Communication requirements analysis

The analysis of the communication requirements determines the information needs of the project stakeholders. These requirements are defined by combining the type and format of information needed with an analysis of the value of that information. Project resources should be expended only on communicating information that contributes to the success of the project or where a lack of communication can lead to failure.
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Communication technology

The methods used to transfer information among project stakeholders may vary significantly. For example, a project team may use techniques from brief conversations to extended meetings, or from simple written documents to extensive materials (e.g., schedules, databases, and websites), which are accessible online as methods of communication.
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Communication models

The communication models used to facilitate communications and the exchange of information may vary from project to project and also within different stages of the same project. A basic communication model consists of two parties, defined as the sender and receiver. Medium is the technology medium and includes the mode of communication while noise includes any interference or barriers that might compromise the delivery of the message.
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Communication methods

There are several communication methods that are used to share information among project stakeholders. The choices of communication methods that are used for a project may need to be discussed and agreed upon by the project stakeholders based on communication requirements; cost and time constraints; and familiarity and availability of the required tools and resources that may be applicable to the communications process.
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Interpersonal and team skills

Interpersonal and team skills are skills used to effectively lead and interact with team members and other stakeholders.
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Communication styles assessment

Communication styles assessment is a technique used to identify the preferred communication method, format, and content for stakeholders for planned communication activities.
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Political awareness

Political awareness helps the project manager to plan communications based on the project environment as well as the organization's political environment. It concerns the recognition of power relationships, both formal and informal, and also the willingness to operate within these structures. Political awareness assists the project manager in engaging stakeholders appropriately to maintain their support throughout the project.
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Cultural awareness

Cultural awareness is an understanding of the differences between individuals, groups, and organizations and adapting the project's communication strategy in the contexts of these differences. This awareness and any consequent actions minimize misunderstandings and miscommunication that may result from cultural differences within the project's stakeholder community. Cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity help the project manager to plan communications based on the cultural differences and requirements of stakeholders and team members.
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Data representation

Data representation is used to show graphic representations or other methods used to convey data and information. There are 15 data representation tools and techniques.
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Stakeholder engagement assessment matrix

The stakeholder engagement assessment matrix is a matrix that compares current and desired stakeholder engagement levels.
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Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
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Communications management plan

The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.
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Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.
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Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.
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Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
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13.1 Identify Stakeholders

Identify Stakeholders is the process of identifying the people, groups, or organizations that could impact or be impacted by a decision, activity, or outcome of the project, analyzing and documenting relevant information regarding their interests, involvement, interdependencies, influence, and potential impact on project success. The key benefit of this process is that it allows the project manager to identify the appropriate focus for each stakeholder or group of stakeholders.
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Business case

The business case or similar document describes the necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether or not the project is worth the required investment. It is commonly used for decision making by managers or executives above the project level. Typically, the business need and the cost-benefit analysis are contained in the business case to justify and establish boundaries for the project, and such analysis is usually completed by a business analyst using various stakeholder inputs. The sponsor should agree to the scope and limitations of the business case.
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Business documents

Business documents (business case and benefits management plan) are two key documents that are interdependent and initially developed prior to the project. The project manager is responsible for maintaining and iteratively updating business documents throughout the project.
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Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
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Agreements

A procurement agreement includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies regarding what the seller is to perform or provide. It is the project management team’s responsibility to make certain that all agreements meet the specific needs of the project while adhering to organizational procurement policies. Depending upon the application area, an agreement can also be called an understanding, a contract, a subcontract, or a purchase order. Regardless of the document’s complexity, a contract is a mutually binding legal agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified products, services, or results, and obligates the buyer to compensate the seller. A contract is a legal relationship subject to remedy in the courts.
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
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Data gathering

Data gathering is a technique used to collect data and information from various sources for the purposes of later analyzing the data and assessing information.
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Brainstorming

Brainstorming is a common data-gathering technique that derives input from individuals and groups usually perceived as subject matter experts.
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Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
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Benefits management plan

The benefits management plan is the documented explanation defining the processes for creating, maximizing, and sustaining the benefits provided by a project.
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Communications management plan

The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.
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Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.
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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
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Change log

A change log is used to document changes that occur during a project. These changes and their impact to the project in terms of time, cost, and risk, are communicated to the appropriate stakeholders. Rejected change requests are also captured in the change log.
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Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.
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Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.
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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
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Questionnaires and surveys

Questionnaires and surveys are written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a large number of respondents. Questionnaires and/or surveys are most appropriate with varied audiences, when a quick turnaround is needed, when respondents are geographically dispersed, and where statistical analysis is appropriate.
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Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
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Stakeholder analysis

Stakeholder analysis is a technique of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative and qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken into account throughout the project. It identifies the interests, expectations, and influence of the stakeholders and relates them to the purpose of the project. It also helps to identify stakeholder relationships (with the project and other stakeholders) that can be leveraged to build coalitions and potential partnerships to enhance the project's chance of success, along with stakeholder relationships that need to be influenced differently at different stages of the project or phase.
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Document analysis

Document analysis is used to elicit requirements by analyzing existing documentation and identifying relevant requirements. Examples of documents that may be analyzed include, but are not limited to: business plans, marketing literature, agreements, requests for proposal, current process flows, logical data models, business rules repositories, application software documentation, business process or interface documentation, use cases, other requirements documentation, problem/issue logs, policies, procedures, and regulatory documentation such as laws, codes, or ordinances, etc.
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Data representation

Data representation is used to show graphic representations or other methods used to convey data and information. There are 15 data representation tools and techniques.
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Stakeholder mapping and representation

Stakeholder mapping and representation is a method of categorizing stakeholders using various methods. Categorizing stakeholders assists the team in building relationships with the identified project stakeholders.
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Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.
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Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.
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Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.
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Requirements management plan

The requirements management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed. The project manager chooses the most effective relationship for the project and documents this approach in the requirements management plan. Many of the requirements management plan components are based on that relationship.
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Communications management plan

The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.
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Risk management plan

The risk management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed. Key elements of the risk management plan that contribute to the Identify Risks process are the assignments of roles and responsibilities, provision for risk management activities in the budget and schedule, and categories of risk, which are sometimes expressed as a risk breakdown structure.
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Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.
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Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
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Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
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Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.
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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
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Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

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Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.

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Communications management plan

The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.

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Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.

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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

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Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

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Project communications

The Manage Communications process involves the activities that are required for information to be created, distributed, received, acknowledged, and understood. Project communications may include but are not limited to: performance reports, deliverables status, schedule progress, and cost incurred. Project communications can vary significantly and are influenced by factors such as, but not limited to, the urgency and impact of the message, its method of delivery, and level of confidentiality.

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Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.

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Alternatives analysis

Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and make-rent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.

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Root cause analysis

Root cause analysis is an analytical technique used to determine the basic underlying reason that causes a variance, defect, or risk. A root cause may underlie more than one variance, defect, or risk.

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Stakeholder analysis

Stakeholder analysis is a technique of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative and qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken into account throughout the project. It identifies the interests, expectations, and influence of the stakeholders and relates them to the purpose of the project. It also helps to identify stakeholder relationships (with the project and other stakeholders) that can be leveraged to build coalitions and potential partnerships to enhance the project’s chance of success, along with stakeholder relationships that need to be influenced differently at different stages of the project or phase.

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Decision making

Decision making techniques are used to select a course of action from different alternatives. There are two decision-making tools and techniques.

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Multicriteria decision analysis

Selection criteria are often used as a part of acquiring the project team. By use of a multicriteria decision analysis tool, criteria are developed and used to rate or score potential team members. The criteria are weighted according to the relative importance of the needs within the team.

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Voting

Voting is a collective decision-making technique and an assessment process having multiple alternatives with an expected outcome in the form of future actions. These techniques can be used to generate, classify, and prioritize product requirements. Can include making decisions based on unanimity, majority, or plurality.

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Work performance data

Work performance data are the raw observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of detail from which information is derived by other processes. Data are gathered through work execution and passed to the controlling processes for further analysis.

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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.

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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

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Data representation

Data representation is used to show graphic representations or other methods used to convey data and information. There are 15 data representation tools and techniques.

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Stakeholder engagement assessment matrix

The stakeholder engagement assessment matrix is a matrix that compares current and desired stakeholder engagement levels.

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Communication skills

Communication skills are used to transfer information between stakeholders. There are two communication skills tools and techniques (feedback and presentations).

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Feedback

Feedback is information about reactions to communications, a deliverable, or a situation. Feedback supports interactive communication between the project manager, team and all other project stakeholders. Examples include coaching, mentoring, and negotiating.

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Presentations

A presentation is the formal delivery of information and/or documentation.

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Interpersonal and team skills

Interpersonal and team skills are skills used to effectively lead and interact with team members and other stakeholders.

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Active listening

Active listening helps reduce misunderstandings and improves communication and knowledge sharing. Listening actively involves acknowledging, clarifying and confirming, understanding, and removing barriers that adversely affect comprehension.

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Cultural awareness

Cultural awareness is an understanding of the differences between individuals, groups, and organizations and adapting the project’s communication strategy in the contexts of these differences. This awareness and any consequent actions minimize misunderstandings and miscommunication that may result from cultural differences within the project’s stakeholder community. Cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity help the project manager to plan communications based on the cultural differences and requirements of stakeholders and team members.

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Leadership

Leadership is the knowledge, skills, and behaviors needed to guide, motivate, and direct a team, to help an organization achieve its business goals.

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Networking

Networking is the formal and informal interaction with others in an organization, industry, or professional environment. It is a constructive way to understand political and interpersonal factors that will impact the effectiveness of various staffing management options. Human resource management benefits from successful networking by improving knowledge of and access to human resource assets such as strong competencies, specialized experience, and external partnership opportunities. Examples of human resources networking activities include proactive correspondence, luncheon meetings, informal conversations including meetings and events, trade conferences, and symposium. Networking can be a useful technique at the beginning of a project. It can also be an effective way to enhance project management professional development during the project and after the project ends.

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Political awareness

Political awareness helps the project manager to plan communications based on the project environment as well as the organization’s political environment. It concerns the recognition of power relationships, both formal and informal, and also the willingness to operate within these structures. Political awareness assists the project manager in engaging stakeholders appropriately to maintain their support throughout the project.

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Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.

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Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

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Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

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Work performance information

Work performance information is the performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context, and integrated based on relationships across areas. Thus work performance data has been transformed into work performance information. Data in itself cannot be used in the decision-making process as it has only out-of-context meaning. Work performance information, however, is correlated and contextualized, and provides a sound foundation for project decisions.

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Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.

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Communications management plan

The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.

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Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.

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Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

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Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

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Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.

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Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

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Risk management plan

The risk management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed. Key elements of the risk management plan that contribute to the Identify Risks process are the assignments of roles and responsibilities, provision for risk management activities in the budget and schedule, and categories of risk, which are sometimes expressed as a risk breakdown structure.

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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

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Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

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Risk report

The risk report presents information on sources of overall project risk, together with summary information on identified individual project risks. The risk report is developed progressively throughout all of the Project Risk Management processes.

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Work performance data

Work performance data are the raw observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of detail from which information is derived by other processes. Data are gathered through work execution and passed to the controlling processes for further analysis.

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Work performance reports

Work performance reports are the physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents, intended to generate decisions, actions, or awareness. Project information may be communicated verbally from person to person. However, in order to record, store, and sometimes distribute work performance information, a physical or electronic representation in the form of project documents is required. Work performance reports are a subset of project documents, which are intended to create awareness and generate decisions or actions. Specific work performance metrics may be defined at the start of the project and included in the normal work performance reports provided to key stakeholders.

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Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.

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Technical performance analysis

Technical performance analysis compares technical accomplishments during project execution to the schedule of technical achievement. It requires the definition of objective, quantifiable measures of technical performance, which can be used to compare actual results against targets. Such technical performance measures may include weight, transaction times, number of delivered defects, storage capacity, etc. Deviation can indicate the potential impact of threats or opportunities.

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Reserve analysis

Duration estimates may include contingency reserves, sometimes referred to as time reserves or buffers, into the project schedule to account for schedule uncertainty. Contingency reserves are the estimated duration within the schedule baseline, which is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigation responses are developed. Contingency reserves are associated with the “known-unknowns,” which may be estimated to account for this unknown amount of rework. The contingency reserve may be a percentage of the estimated activity duration, a fixed number of work periods, or may be developed by using quantitative analysis methods such as Monte Carlo simulation. Contingency reserves may be separated from the individual activities and aggregated into buffers. As more precise information about the project becomes available, the contingency reserve may be used, reduced, or eliminated. Contingency should be clearly identified in schedule documentation. Estimates may also be produced for the amount of management reserve of time for the project. Management reserves are a specified amount of the project duration withheld for management control purposes and are reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project. Management reserves are intended to address the “unknown-unknowns” that can affect a project. Management reserve is not included in the schedule baseline, but it is part of the overall project duration requirements. Depending on contract terms, use of management reserves may require a change to the schedule baseline.

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Audits

An audit is a structured, independent process used to determine if project activities comply with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures.

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Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.

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Work performance information

Work performance information is the performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context, and integrated based on relationships across areas. Thus work performance data has been transformed into work performance information. Data in itself cannot be used in the decision-making process as it has only out-of-context meaning. Work performance information, however, is correlated and contextualized, and provides a sound foundation for project decisions.

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Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

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Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

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Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

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Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.

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Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

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Risk report

The risk report presents information on sources of overall project risk, together with summary information on identified individual project risks. The risk report is developed progressively throughout all of the Project Risk Management processes.

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Organizational process assets updates

The organizational process assets that may be updated include, but are not limited to, report formats and lessons learned documentation. This documentation may become part of the historical database for both this project and the performing organization and may include the causes of issues, reasons behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned during the project.

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Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

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Requirements management plan

The requirements management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed. The project manager chooses the most effective relationship for the project and documents this approach in the requirements management plan. Many of the requirements management plan components are based on that relationship.

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Procurement management plan

The procurement management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how a project team will acquire goods and services from outside the performing organization. It describes how the procurement processes will be managed from developing procurement documents through contract closure.

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Risk management plan

The risk management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed. Key elements of the risk management plan that contribute to the Identify Risks process are the assignments of roles and responsibilities, provision for risk management activities in the budget and schedule, and categories of risk, which are sometimes expressed as a risk breakdown structure.

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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

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Change management plan

The change management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the change control board, documents the extent of it’s authority, and describes how the change control system will be implemented.

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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

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Schedule baseline

A schedule baseline is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is accepted and approved by the appropriate stakeholders as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. During monitoring and controlling, the approved baseline dates are compared to the actual start and finish dates to determine whether variances have occurred. The schedule baseline is a component of the project management plan.

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Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.

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Milestone list

A milestone is a significant point or event in a project. A milestone list is a list identifying all project milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory, such as those required by contract, or optional, such as those based upon historical information. Milestones are similar to regular schedule activities, with the same structure and attributes, but they have zero duration because milestones represent a moment in time.

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Quality reports

Quality reports are project documents that include quality management issues, recommendations for corrective actions, and a summary of findings from quality control activities. Quality reports may include recommendations for process, project, and product improvements.

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Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.

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Requirements traceability matrix

The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them. The implementation of a requirements traceability matrix helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives. It provides a means to track requirements throughout the project life cycle, helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. Finally, it provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.

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Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.

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Agreements

A procurement agreement includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies regarding what the seller is to perform or provide. It is the project management team’s responsibility to make certain that all agreements meet the specific needs of the project while adhering to organizational procurement policies. Depending upon the application area, an agreement can also be called an understanding, a contract, a subcontract, or a purchase order. Regardless of the document’s complexity, a contract is a mutually binding legal agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified products, services, or results, and obligates the buyer to compensate the seller. A contract is a legal relationship subject to remedy in the courts.

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Procurement documentation

Procurement documents are used to solicit proposals from prospective sellers. Terms such as bid, tender, or quotation are generally used when the seller selection decision will be based on price (as when buying commercial or standard items), while a term such as proposal is generally used when other considerations, such as technical capability or technical approach are paramount. Common terms are in use for different types of procurement documents and may include request for information (RFI), invitation for bid (IFB), request for proposal (RFP), request for quotation (RFQ), tender notice, invitation for negotiation, and invitation for seller’s initial response. Specific procurement terminology used may vary by industry and location of the procurement.

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Approved change requests

Approved change requests can include modifications to the terms and conditions of the contract, including the procurement statement of work, pricing, and descriptions of the products, services, or results to be provided. All procurement-related changes are formally documented in writing and approved before being implemented through the Control Procurements process.

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Work performance data

Work performance data are the raw observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of detail from which information is derived by other processes. Data are gathered through work execution and passed to the controlling processes for further analysis.

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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.

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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.

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Claims administration

Contested changes and potential constructive changes are those requested changes where the buyer and seller cannot reach an agreement on compensation for the change or cannot agree that a change has occurred. These contested changes are variously called claims, disputes, or appeals. Claims are documented, processed, monitored, and managed throughout the contract life cycle, usually in accordance with the terms of the contract. If the parties themselves do not resolve a claim, it may have to be handled in accordance with alternative dispute resolution (ADR) typically following procedures established in the contract. Settlement of all claims and disputes through negotiation is the preferred method.

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Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.

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Performance reviews

Performance reviews measure, compare, and analyze schedule performance such as actual start and finish dates, percent complete, and remaining duration for work in progress. Performance reviews compare cost performance over time, schedule activities or work packages overrunning and under-running the budget, and estimated funds needed to complete work in progress.

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Organizational process assets updates

The organizational process assets that may be updated include, but are not limited to, report formats and lessons learned documentation. This documentation may become part of the historical database for both this project and the performing organization and may include the causes of issues, reasons behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned during the project.

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Earned value analysis

Earned value analysis provides an integrated perspective on scope, schedule, and cost performance. The performance measurement baseline is compared to actual results to determine if a change, corrective action, or preventive action is necessary. Schedule performance measurements such as schedule variance (SV) and schedule performance index (SPI) are used to assess the magnitude of variation to the original schedule baseline.

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Trend analysis

Trend analysis is an analytical technique that uses mathematical models to forecast future outcomes based on historical results.

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Inspection

Inspection includes activities such as measuring, examining, and validating to determine whether work and deliverables meet requirements and product acceptance criteria. Inspections are sometimes called reviews, product reviews, audits, and walk-throughs. In some application areas, these different terms have unique and specific meanings.

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Audits

An audit is a structured, independent process used to determine if project activities comply with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures.

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Closed procurements

The buyer, usually through its authorized procurement administrator, provides the seller with formal written notice that the contract has been completed. Requirements for formal procurement closure are usually defined in the terms and conditions of the contract and are included in the procurement management plan.

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Work performance information

Work performance information is the performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context, and integrated based on relationships across areas. Thus work performance data has been transformed into work performance information. Data in itself cannot be used in the decision-making process as it has only out-of-context meaning. Work performance information, however, is correlated and contextualized, and provides a sound foundation for project decisions.

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Procurement documentation updates

Procurement documentation that may be updated includes the contract with all supporting schedules, requested unapproved contract changes, and approved change requests. Procurement documentation also includes any seller-developed technical documentation and other work performance information such as deliverables, seller performance reports and warranties, financial documents including invoices and payment records, and the results of contract-related inspections.

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Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

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Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

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Risk management plan

The risk management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed. Key elements of the risk management plan that contribute to the Identify Risks process are the assignments of roles and responsibilities, provision for risk management activities in the budget and schedule, and categories of risk, which are sometimes expressed as a risk breakdown structure.

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Procurement management plan

The procurement management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how a project team will acquire goods and services from outside the performing organization. It describes how the procurement processes will be managed from developing procurement documents through contract closure.

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Schedule baseline

A schedule baseline is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is accepted and approved by the appropriate stakeholders as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. During monitoring and controlling, the approved baseline dates are compared to the actual start and finish dates to determine whether variances have occurred. The schedule baseline is a component of the project management plan.

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Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.

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Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

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Resource requirements

Resource requirements are the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.

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Responsibility assignment matrix

Responsibility assignment matrix is a grid that shows the project resources assigned to each work package.

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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

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Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.

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Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

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Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.

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Communications management plan

The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.

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Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.

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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

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Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

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Project communications

The Manage Communications process involves the activities that are required for information to be created, distributed, received, acknowledged, and understood. Project communications may include but are not limited to: performance reports, deliverables status, schedule progress, and cost incurred. Project communications can vary significantly and are influenced by factors such as, but not limited to, the urgency and impact of the message, its method of delivery, and level of confidentiality.

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Work performance data

Work performance data are the raw observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of detail from which information is derived by other processes. Data are gathered through work execution and passed to the controlling processes for further analysis.

Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.

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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.

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Project management information system

Project management information system provides a standard set of tools for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and performance. It also allows the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, and presentations. Graphical capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information.

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Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.

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Stakeholder engagement assessment matrix

The stakeholder engagement assessment matrix is a matrix that compares current and desired stakeholder engagement levels.

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Interpersonal and team skills

Interpersonal and team skills are skills used to effectively lead and interact with team members and other stakeholders.

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Observation and conversation

Observation and conversation are used to stay in touch with the work and attitudes of project team members. The project management team monitors progress toward project deliverables, accomplishments that are a source of pride for team members, and interpersonal issues.

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Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.

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Work performance information

Work performance information is the performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context, and integrated based on relationships across areas. Thus work performance data has been transformed into work performance information. Data in itself cannot be used in the decision-making process as it has only out-of-context meaning. Work performance information, however, is correlated and contextualized, and provides a sound foundation for project decisions.

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Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

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Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

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Communications management plan

The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.

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Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.

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Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

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Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

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Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.

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Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

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Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.

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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

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Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

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Physical resource assignments

Physical resource assignments describe the expected resource utilization along with details such as type, amount, location, and whether the resource is internal to the organization or outsourced. They are dynamic and subject to change due to availability, the project, organization, environment, or other factors.

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Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.

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Resource breakdown structure

The resource breakdown structure is a hierarchical representation of resources by category and type. Examples of resource categories include labor, material, equipment, and supplies. Resource types may include the skill level, grade level, or other information as appropriate to the project. The resource breakdown structure is useful for organizing and reporting project schedule data with resource utilization information.

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Resource requirements

Resource requirements are the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.

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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

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Work performance data

Work performance data are the raw observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of detail from which information is derived by other processes. Data are gathered through work execution and passed to the controlling processes for further analysis.

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Agreements

A procurement agreement includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies regarding what the seller is to perform or provide. It is the project management team’s responsibility to make certain that all agreements meet the specific needs of the project while adhering to organizational procurement policies. Depending upon the application area, an agreement can also be called an understanding, a contract, a subcontract, or a purchase order. Regardless of the document’s complexity, a contract is a mutually binding legal agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified products, services, or results, and obligates the buyer to compensate the seller. A contract is a legal relationship subject to remedy in the courts.

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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

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Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.

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Alternatives analysis

Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and make-rent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.

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Cost-benefit analysis

The primary benefits of meeting quality requirements include less rework, higher productivity, lower costs, increased stakeholder satisfaction, and increased profitability. A cost-benefit analysis for each quality activity compares the cost of the quality step to the expected benefit.

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Performance reviews

Performance reviews measure, compare, and analyze schedule performance such as actual start and finish dates, percent complete, and remaining duration for work in progress. Performance reviews compare cost performance over time, schedule activities or work packages overrunning and under-running the budget, and estimated funds needed to complete work in progress.

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Trend analysis

Trend analysis is an analytical technique that uses mathematical models to forecast future outcomes based on historical results.

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Problem solving

Problem solving is finding solutions for issues or challenges. It can include gathering additional information, critical thinking, creative, quantitative and/or logical approaches.

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Interpersonal and team skills

Interpersonal and team skills are skills used to effectively lead and interact with team members and other stakeholders.

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Negotiation

Negotiation is a strategy of conferring with parties of shared or opposed interests with a view toward compromise or reaching an agreement. Negotiation is an integral part of project management and done well, increases the probability of project success.

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Influencing

Influencing is a key skill for all project managers due to often having little or no direct authority over team members in a matrixed environment. Influencing skills include the ability to be persuasive and clearly articulate points and positions. Influencing also requires high levels of active and effective listening skills as well as keen awareness and observations of the professional environment within which they operate.

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Project management information system

Project management information system provides a standard set of tools for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and performance. It also allows the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, and presentations. Graphical capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information.

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Work performance information

Work performance information is the performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context, and integrated based on relationships across areas. Thus work performance data has been transformed into work performance information. Data in itself cannot be used in the decision-making process as it has only out-of-context meaning. Work performance information, however, is correlated and contextualized, and provides a sound foundation for project decisions.

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Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

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Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

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Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.

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Schedule baseline

A schedule baseline is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is accepted and approved by the appropriate stakeholders as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. During monitoring and controlling, the approved baseline dates are compared to the actual start and finish dates to determine whether variances have occurred. The schedule baseline is a component of the project management plan.

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Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.

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Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

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Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.

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Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

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Physical resource assignments

Physical resource assignments describe the expected resource utilization along with details such as type, amount, location, and whether the resource is internal to the organization or outsourced. They are dynamic and subject to change due to availability, the project, organization, environment, or other factors.

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Resource breakdown structure

The resource breakdown structure is a hierarchical representation of resources by category and type. Examples of resource categories include labor, material, equipment, and supplies. Resource types may include the skill level, grade level, or other information as appropriate to the project. The resource breakdown structure is useful for organizing and reporting project schedule data with resource utilization information.

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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

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Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

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Quality management plan

The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how the organization’s quality policies will be implemented. It describes how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project. The quality management plan may be formal or informal, detailed, or broadly framed. The style and detail of the quality management plan are determined by the requirements of the project. The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. The benefits of this review can include a sharper focus on the project’s value proposition and reductions in costs and in the frequency of schedule overruns that were caused by rework.

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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

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Quality metrics

A quality metric specifically describes a project or product attribute and how the control quality process will measure it. A measurement is an actual value. The tolerance defines the allowable variations to the metric. For example, if the quality objective is to stay within the approved budget by ± 10%, the specific quality metric is used to measure the cost of every deliverable and determine the percent variance from the approved budget for that deliverable. Quality metrics are used in the perform quality assurance and control quality processes. Some examples of quality metrics include on-time performance, cost control, defect frequency, failure rate, availability, reliability, and test coverage.

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Test and evaluation documents

Test and evaluation documents are project documents that describe the activities used to determine if the product meets the quality objectives stated in the quality management plan.

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Approved change requests

Approved change requests can include modifications to the terms and conditions of the contract, including the procurement statement of work, pricing, and descriptions of the products, services, or results to be provided. All procurement-related changes are formally documented in writing and approved before being implemented through the Control Procurements process.

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Work performance data

Work performance data are the raw observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of detail from which information is derived by other processes. Data are gathered through work execution and passed to the controlling processes for further analysis.

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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

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Deliverables

A deliverable is any unique and verifiable product, result or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process, phase, or project. Deliverables are typically tangible components completed to meet the project objectives and can include elements of the project management plan.

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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.

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Data gathering

Data gathering is a technique used to collect data and information from various sources for the purposes of later analyzing the data and assessing information.

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Checklists

A checklist is a list of items, actions, or points to be considered. It is often used as a reminder.

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Check sheets

Check sheets are also known as tally sheets and are used to organize facts in a manner that will facilitate the effective collection of useful data about a potential quality problem. They are especially useful for gathering attributes data while performing inspections to identify defects; for example, data about the frequencies or consequences of defects collected.

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Statistical sampling

Statistical sampling involves choosing part of a population of interest for inspection (for example, selecting ten engineering drawings at random from a list of seventy-five). Sample frequency and sizes should be determined during the Plan Quality Management process so the cost of quality will include the number of tests, expected scrap, etc. There is a substantial body of knowledge on statistical sampling. In some application areas, it may be necessary for the project management team to be familiar with a variety of sampling techniques to assure the sample represents the population of interest.

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Questionnaires and surveys

Questionnaires and surveys are written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a large number of respondents. Questionnaires and/or surveys are most appropriate with varied audiences, when a quick turnaround is needed, when respondents are geographically dispersed, and where statistical analysis is appropriate.

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Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.

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Performance reviews

Performance reviews measure, compare, and analyze schedule performance such as actual start and finish dates, percent complete, and remaining duration for work in progress. Performance reviews compare cost performance over time, schedule activities or work packages overrunning and under-running the budget, and estimated funds needed to complete work in progress.

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Root cause analysis

Root cause analysis is an analytical technique used to determine the basic underlying reason that causes a variance, defect, or risk. A root cause may underlie more than one variance, defect, or risk.

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Inspection

Inspection includes activities such as measuring, examining, and validating to determine whether work and deliverables meet requirements and product acceptance criteria. Inspections are sometimes called reviews, product reviews, audits, and walk-throughs. In some application areas, these different terms have unique and specific meanings.

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Testing and product evaluations

Testing is an organized and constructed investigation conducted to provide objective information about the quality of the product or service under test in accordance with the project requirements. The intent of testing is to find errors, defects, bugs, or other nonconformance problems in the product or service. The type, amount, and extent of tests needed to evaluate each requirement are part of the project quality plan and depend on the nature of the project, time, budget, and other constraints. Tests can be performed throughout the project, as different components of the project become available, and at the end of the project on the final deliverables. Early testing helps identify nonconformance problems and helps reduce the cost of fixing the nonconforming components.

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Data representation

Data representation is used to show graphic representations or other methods used to convey data and information. There are 15 data representation tools and techniques.

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Cause and effect diagrams

Cause-and-effect diagrams are also known as fishbone diagrams, why-why diagrams, or Ishikawa diagrams. This type of diagram breaks down the causes of the problem statement identified into discrete branches, helping to identify the main or root cause of the problem.

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Control charts

Control charts are used to determine whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance. Upper and lower specification limits are based on the requirements and reflect the maximum and minimum values allowed. Upper and lower control limits are different from specification limits. The control limits are determined using standard statistical calculations and principles to ultimately establish the natural capability for a stable process. The project manager and appropriate stakeholders may use the statistically calculated control limits to identify the points at which corrective action will be taken to prevent performance that remains outside the control limits. Control charts can be used to measure various types of output variables. Although most frequently used to track repetitive activities required for producing manufactured lots, control charts may also be used to monitor cost and schedule variances, volume, frequency of scope changes, or other management results to help determine if the project management processes are in control.

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Histograms

Histograms show a graphical representation of numerical data. Histograms can show the number of defects per deliverable, a ranking of the cause of defects, the number of times each process is non-compliant, or other representations of project or product defects.

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Scatter diagrams

A scatter diagram is a graph that shows the relationship between two variables. Scatter diagrams can demonstrate a relationship between any element of a process, environment, or activity on one axis and a quality defect on the other axis.

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Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.

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Quality control measurements

Quality control measurements are the results of control quality activities. They are used to analyze and evaluate the quality of the processes of the project against the standards of the performing organization or the requirements specified. Quality control measurements can also compare the processes used to create the measurements, and validate actual measurements to determine their level of correctness.

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Verified deliverables

A goal of the Control Quality process is to determine the correctness of deliverables. The results of performing the Control Quality process are verified deliverables. Verified deliverables are an input to Validate Scope for formalized acceptance.

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Work performance information

Work performance information is the performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context, and integrated based on relationships across areas. Thus work performance data has been transformed into work performance information. Data in itself cannot be used in the decision-making process as it has only out-of-context meaning. Work performance information, however, is correlated and contextualized, and provides a sound foundation for project decisions.

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Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

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Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

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Quality management plan

The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how the organization’s quality policies will be implemented. It describes how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project. The quality management plan may be formal or informal, detailed, or broadly framed. The style and detail of the quality management plan are determined by the requirements of the project. The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. The benefits of this review can include a sharper focus on the project’s value proposition and reductions in costs and in the frequency of schedule overruns that were caused by rework.

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Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

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Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

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Test and evaluation documents

Test and evaluation documents are project documents that describe the activities used to determine if the product meets the quality objectives stated in the quality management plan.

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Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

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Risk management plan

The risk management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed. Key elements of the risk management plan that contribute to the Identify Risks process are the assignments of roles and responsibilities, provision for risk management activities in the budget and schedule, and categories of risk, which are sometimes expressed as a risk breakdown structure.

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Communications management plan

The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.

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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

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Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.

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Change management plan

The change management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the change control board, documents the extent of it’s authority, and describes how the change control system will be implemented.

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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

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Change log

A change log is used to document changes that occur during a project. These changes and their impact to the project in terms of time, cost, and risk, are communicated to the appropriate stakeholders. Rejected change requests are also captured in the change log.

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Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.

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Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.

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Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.

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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.

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Communication skills

Communication skills are used to transfer information between stakeholders. There are two communication skills tools and techniques (feedback and presentations).

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Feedback

Feedback is information about reactions to communications, a deliverable, or a situation. Feedback supports interactive communication between the project manager, team and all other project stakeholders. Examples include coaching, mentoring, and negotiating.

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Cultural awareness

Cultural awareness is an understanding of the differences between individuals, groups, and organizations and adapting the project’s communication strategy in the contexts of these differences. This awareness and any consequent actions minimize misunderstandings and miscommunication that may result from cultural differences within the project’s stakeholder community. Cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity help the project manager to plan communications based on the cultural differences and requirements of stakeholders and team members.

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Observation and conversation

Observation and conversation are used to stay in touch with the work and attitudes of project team members. The project management team monitors progress toward project deliverables, accomplishments that are a source of pride for team members, and interpersonal issues.

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Negotiation

Negotiation is a strategy of conferring with parties of shared or opposed interests with a view toward compromise or reaching an agreement. Negotiation is an integral part of project management and done well, increases the probability of project success.

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Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

Q

Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

Q

Communication skills

Communication skills are used to transfer information between stakeholders. There are two communication skills tools and techniques (feedback and presentations).

Q

Conflict management

Sources of conflict include scarce resources, scheduling priorities, and personal work styles. Team ground rules, group norms, and solid project management practices, like communication planning and role definition, reduce the amount of conflict. Successful conflict management results in greater productivity and positive working relationships. When managed properly, differences of opinion can lead to increased creativity and better decision making. If the differences become a negative factor, project team members are initially responsible for their resolution. If conflict escalates, the project manager should help facilitate a satisfactory resolution. Conflict should be addressed early and usually in private, using a direct, collaborative approach. If disruptive conflict continues, formal procedures may be used, including disciplinary actions.

Q

Political awareness

Political awareness helps the project manager to plan communications based on the project environment as well as the organization’s political environment. It concerns the recognition of power relationships, both formal and informal, and also the willingness to operate within these structures. Political awareness assists the project manager in engaging stakeholders appropriately to maintain their support throughout the project.

Q

Ground rules

Ground rules establish clear expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members. Early commitment to clear guidelines decreases misunderstandings and increases productivity. Discussing ground rules in areas such as code of conduct, communication, working together, or meeting etiquette allows team members to discover values that are important to one another. All project team members share responsibility for enforcing the rules once they are established.

Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.

Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

Q

Risk management plan

The risk management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed. Key elements of the risk management plan that contribute to the Identify Risks process are the assignments of roles and responsibilities, provision for risk management activities in the budget and schedule, and categories of risk, which are sometimes expressed as a risk breakdown structure.

Q

Requirements management plan

The requirements management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed. The project manager chooses the most effective relationship for the project and documents this approach in the requirements management plan. Many of the requirements management plan components are based on that relationship.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

Q

Scope management plan

The scope management plan is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified. The scope management plan is a major input into the Develop Project Management Plan process, and the other scope management processes.

Q

Communications management plan

The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.

Q

Procurement management plan

The procurement management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how a project team will acquire goods and services from outside the performing organization. It describes how the procurement processes will be managed from developing procurement documents through contract closure.

Q

Configuration management plan

The configuration management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how to identify and account for project artifacts under configuration control, and how to record and report changes to them.

Q

Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.

Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

Q

Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.

Q

Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.

Q

Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.

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Seller proposals

Seller proposals are formal responses from sellers to request a proposal or other procurement document specifying the price, commercial terms of sale, and technical specifications or capabilities the seller will do for the requesting organization. If accepted, it would bind the seller to perform the resulting agreement.

Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.

Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.

Q

Advertising

Existing lists of potential sellers often can be expanded by placing advertisements in general circulation publications such as selected newspapers or in specialty trade publications. Some organizations use online resources to communicate solicitations to the vendor community. Some government jurisdictions require public advertising of certain types of procurement items, and most government jurisdiction require public advertising or online posting of pending government contracts.

Q

Bidder conferences

Bidder conferences (sometimes called contractor conferences, vendor conferences, and pre-bid conferences) are meetings between the buyer and all prospective sellers prior to submittal of a bid or proposal. They are used to ensure that all prospective sellers have a clear and common understanding of the procurement requirements, and that no bidders receive preferential treatment. To be fair, buyers should take great care to ensure that all prospective sellers hear every question from any individual prospective seller and every answer from the buyer. Typically fairness is addressed by techniques such as collecting questions from bidders or arranging field visits in advance of the bidder conference. Responses to questions can be incorporated into the procurement documents as amendments.

Q

Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.

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Proposal evaluation

Proposal evaluation is the process of reviewing proposals provided by suppliers to support contract award decisions.

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Negotiation

Negotiation is a strategy of conferring with parties of shared or opposed interests with a view toward compromise or reaching an agreement. Negotiation is an integral part of project management and done well, increases the probability of project success.

Q

Selected sellers

The selected sellers are those who have been judged to be in a competitive range based upon the outcome of the proposal or bid evaluation, and who have negotiated a draft contract that will become the actual contract when an award is made. Final approval of all complex, high-value, high-risk procurements will generally require organizational senior management approval prior to award.

Q

Agreements

A procurement agreement includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies regarding what the seller is to perform or provide. It is the project management team’s responsibility to make certain that all agreements meet the specific needs of the project while adhering to organizational procurement policies. Depending upon the application area, an agreement can also be called an understanding, a contract, a subcontract, or a purchase order. Regardless of the document’s complexity, a contract is a mutually binding legal agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified products, services, or results, and obligates the buyer to compensate the seller. A contract is a legal relationship subject to remedy in the courts.

Q

Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

Q

Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

Q

Requirements management plan

The requirements management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed. The project manager chooses the most effective relationship for the project and documents this approach in the requirements management plan. Many of the requirements management plan components are based on that relationship.

Q

Quality management plan

The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how the organization’s quality policies will be implemented. It describes how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project. The quality management plan may be formal or informal, detailed, or broadly framed. The style and detail of the quality management plan are determined by the requirements of the project. The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. The benefits of this review can include a sharper focus on the project’s value proposition and reductions in costs and in the frequency of schedule overruns that were caused by rework.

Q

Communications management plan

The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.

Q

Risk management plan

The risk management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed. Key elements of the risk management plan that contribute to the Identify Risks process are the assignments of roles and responsibilities, provision for risk management activities in the budget and schedule, and categories of risk, which are sometimes expressed as a risk breakdown structure.

Q

Procurement management plan

The procurement management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how a project team will acquire goods and services from outside the performing organization. It describes how the procurement processes will be managed from developing procurement documents through contract closure.

Q

Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.

Q

Schedule management plan

The schedule management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds.

Q

Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.

Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.

Q

Requirements traceability matrix

The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them. The implementation of a requirements traceability matrix helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives. It provides a means to track requirements throughout the project life cycle, helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. Finally, it provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.

Q

Resource calendars

A resource calendar is a calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available. Information on which resources (such as human resources, equipment, and material) are potentially available during a planned activity period, is used for estimating resource utilization. Resource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be available during the project. This information may be at the activity or project level. This knowledge includes consideration of attributes such as resource experience and/or skill level, as well as various geographical locations from which the resources originate and when they may be available.

Q

Organizational process assets updates

The organizational process assets that may be updated include, but are not limited to, report formats and lessons learned documentation. This documentation may become part of the historical database for both this project and the performing organization and may include the causes of issues, reasons behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned during the project.

Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

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Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.

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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

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Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

Q

Communications management plan

The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.

Q

Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.

Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.

Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

Q

Work performance reports

Work performance reports are the physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents, intended to generate decisions, actions, or awareness. Project information may be communicated verbally from person to person. However, in order to record, store, and sometimes distribute work performance information, a physical or electronic representation in the form of project documents is required. Work performance reports are a subset of project documents, which are intended to create awareness and generate decisions or actions. Specific work performance metrics may be defined at the start of the project and included in the normal work performance reports provided to key stakeholders.

Q

Interpersonal and team skills

Interpersonal and team skills are skills used to effectively lead and interact with team members and other stakeholders.

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Change log

A change log is used to document changes that occur during a project. These changes and their impact to the project in terms of time, cost, and risk, are communicated to the appropriate stakeholders. Rejected change requests are also captured in the change log.

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Quality reports

Quality reports are project documents that include quality management issues, recommendations for corrective actions, and a summary of findings from quality control activities. Quality reports may include recommendations for process, project, and product improvements.

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Risk report

The risk report presents information on sources of overall project risk, together with summary information on identified individual project risks. The risk report is developed progressively throughout all of the Project Risk Management processes.

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Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.

Q

Communication technology

The methods used to transfer information among project stakeholders may vary significantly. For example, a project team may use techniques from brief conversations to extended meetings, or from simple written documents to extensive materials (e.g., schedules, databases, and websites), which are accessible online as methods of communication.

Q

Project management information system

Project management information system provides a standard set of tools for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and performance. It also allows the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, and presentations. Graphical capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information.

Q

Communication methods

There are several communication methods that are used to share information among project stakeholders. The choices of communication methods that are used for a project may need to be discussed and agreed upon by the project stakeholders based on communication requirements; cost and time constraints; and familiarity and availability of the required tools and resources that may be applicable to the communications process.

Q

Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

Q

Communication skills

Communication skills are used to transfer information between stakeholders. There are two communication skills tools and techniques (feedback and presentations).

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Communication competence

Communication competence is a combination of tailored communication skills that considers factors such as clarity of purpose in key messages, effective relationships and information sharing, and leadership behaviors.

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Feedback

Feedback is information about reactions to communications, a deliverable, or a situation. Feedback supports interactive communication between the project manager, team and all other project stakeholders. Examples include coaching, mentoring, and negotiating.

Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

Q

Nonverbal

Examples of nonverbal communication include appropriate body language to transmit meaning through gestures, tone of voice, and facial expressions. Mirroring and eye contact are also important techniques. The team members should be aware of how they are expressing themselves both through what they say and what they don’t say.

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Presentations

A presentation is the formal delivery of information and/or documentation.

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Project reporting

Project reporting is the act of collecting and distributing project information. Project information is distributed to many groups of stakeholders and should be adapted to provide information at an appropriate level, format, and detail for each type of stakeholder. The format may range from a simple communication to more elaborate custom reports and presentations. Information may be prepared regularly or on an exception basis. While work performance reports are the output of the Monitor and Control Project Work process, this process develops ad hoc reports, project presentations, blogs, and other types of communication about the project.

Q

Active listening

Active listening helps reduce misunderstandings and improves communication and knowledge sharing. Listening actively involves acknowledging, clarifying and confirming, understanding, and removing barriers that adversely affect comprehension.

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Conflict management

Sources of conflict include scarce resources, scheduling priorities, and personal work styles. Team ground rules, group norms, and solid project management practices, like communication planning and role definition, reduce the amount of conflict. Successful conflict management results in greater productivity and positive working relationships. When managed properly, differences of opinion can lead to increased creativity and better decision making. If the differences become a negative factor, project team members are initially responsible for their resolution. If conflict escalates, the project manager should help facilitate a satisfactory resolution. Conflict should be addressed early and usually in private, using a direct, collaborative approach. If disruptive conflict continues, formal procedures may be used, including disciplinary actions.

Q

Cultural awareness

Cultural awareness is an understanding of the differences between individuals, groups, and organizations and adapting the project’s communication strategy in the contexts of these differences. This awareness and any consequent actions minimize misunderstandings and miscommunication that may result from cultural differences within the project’s stakeholder community. Cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity help the project manager to plan communications based on the cultural differences and requirements of stakeholders and team members.

Q

Meeting management

Meeting management is the process of ensuring meetings achieve their intended objectives. Good meeting management does this effectively and efficiently through proper preparation, setting and managing expectations, keeping good records and ensuring participant promptness and participation.

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Networking

Networking is the formal and informal interaction with others in an organization, industry, or professional environment. It is a constructive way to understand political and interpersonal factors that will impact the effectiveness of various staffing management options. Human resource management benefits from successful networking by improving knowledge of and access to human resource assets such as strong competencies, specialized experience, and external partnership opportunities. Examples of human resources networking activities include proactive correspondence, luncheon meetings, informal conversations including meetings and events, trade conferences, and symposium. Networking can be a useful technique at the beginning of a project. It can also be an effective way to enhance project management professional development during the project and after the project ends.

Q

Political awareness

Political awareness helps the project manager to plan communications based on the project environment as well as the organization’s political environment. It concerns the recognition of power relationships, both formal and informal, and also the willingness to operate within these structures. Political awareness assists the project manager in engaging stakeholders appropriately to maintain their support throughout the project.

Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.

Q

Project communications

The Manage Communications process involves the activities that are required for information to be created, distributed, received, acknowledged, and understood. Project communications may include but are not limited to: performance reports, deliverables status, schedule progress, and cost incurred. Project communications can vary significantly and are influenced by factors such as, but not limited to, the urgency and impact of the message, its method of delivery, and level of confidentiality.

Q

Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

Q

Communications management plan

The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.

Q

Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.

Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

Q

Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.

Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

Q

Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.

Q

Organizational process assets updates

The organizational process assets that may be updated include, but are not limited to, report formats and lessons learned documentation. This documentation may become part of the historical database for both this project and the performing organization and may include the causes of issues, reasons behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned during the project.

Q
Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

Q

Risk management plan

The risk management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed. Key elements of the risk management plan that contribute to the Identify Risks process are the assignments of roles and responsibilities, provision for risk management activities in the budget and schedule, and categories of risk, which are sometimes expressed as a risk breakdown structure.

Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

Q

Risk report

The risk report presents information on sources of overall project risk, together with summary information on identified individual project risks. The risk report is developed progressively throughout all of the Project Risk Management processes.

Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.

Q

Interpersonal and team skills

Interpersonal and team skills are skills used to effectively lead and interact with team members and other stakeholders.

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Influencing

Influencing is a key skill for all project managers due to often having little or no direct authority over team members in a matrixed environment. Influencing skills include the ability to be persuasive and clearly articulate points and positions. Influencing also requires high levels of active and effective listening skills as well as keen awareness and observations of the professional environment within which they operate.

Q

Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Project management information system

Project management information system provides a standard set of tools for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and performance. It also allows the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, and presentations. Graphical capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information.

Q

Project team assignments

The project is staffed when appropriate people have been assigned to the team. The documentation of these assignments can include a project team directory, memos to team members, and names inserted into other parts of the project management plan, such as project organization charts and schedules.

Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

Q

Risk report

The risk report presents information on sources of overall project risk, together with summary information on identified individual project risks. The risk report is developed progressively throughout all of the Project Risk Management processes.

Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

Q

Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.

Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

Q

Project team assignments

The project is staffed when appropriate people have been assigned to the team. The documentation of these assignments can include a project team directory, memos to team members, and names inserted into other parts of the project management plan, such as project organization charts and schedules.

Q

Team charter

Team charter is a document that records the team values, agreements, and operating guidelines, as well as establishing clear expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members.

Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.

Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

Q

Work performance reports

Work performance reports are the physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents, intended to generate decisions, actions, or awareness. Project information may be communicated verbally from person to person. However, in order to record, store, and sometimes distribute work performance information, a physical or electronic representation in the form of project documents is required. Work performance reports are a subset of project documents, which are intended to create awareness and generate decisions or actions. Specific work performance metrics may be defined at the start of the project and included in the normal work performance reports provided to key stakeholders.

Q

Interpersonal and team skills

Interpersonal and team skills are skills used to effectively lead and interact with team members and other stakeholders.

Q

Conflict management

Sources of conflict include scarce resources, scheduling priorities, and personal work styles. Team ground rules, group norms, and solid project management practices, like communication planning and role definition, reduce the amount of conflict. Successful conflict management results in greater productivity and positive working relationships. When managed properly, differences of opinion can lead to increased creativity and better decision making. If the differences become a negative factor, project team members are initially responsible for their resolution. If conflict escalates, the project manager should help facilitate a satisfactory resolution. Conflict should be addressed early and usually in private, using a direct, collaborative approach. If disruptive conflict continues, formal procedures may be used, including disciplinary actions.

Q

Influencing

Influencing is a key skill for all project managers due to often having little or no direct authority over team members in a matrixed environment. Influencing skills include the ability to be persuasive and clearly articulate points and positions. Influencing also requires high levels of active and effective listening skills as well as keen awareness and observations of the professional environment within which they operate.

Q

Decision making

Decision making techniques are used to select a course of action from different alternatives. There are two decision-making tools and techniques.

Q

Emotional intelligence

Emotional intelligence is the ability to identify, assess, and manage the personal emotions of oneself and other people, as well as the collective emotions of groups of people.

Q

Leadership

Leadership is the knowledge, skills, and behaviors needed to guide, motivate, and direct a team, to help an organization achieve its business goals.

Q

Project management information system

Project management information system provides a standard set of tools for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and performance. It also allows the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, and presentations. Graphical capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information.

Q

Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

Q

Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

Q

Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.

Q

Schedule baseline

A schedule baseline is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is accepted and approved by the appropriate stakeholders as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. During monitoring and controlling, the approved baseline dates are compared to the actual start and finish dates to determine whether variances have occurred. The schedule baseline is a component of the project management plan.

Q

Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.

Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

Q

Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Project team assignments

The project is staffed when appropriate people have been assigned to the team. The documentation of these assignments can include a project team directory, memos to team members, and names inserted into other parts of the project management plan, such as project organization charts and schedules.

Q

Enterprise environmental factors updates

The enterprise environmental factors that may be updated as a result of the Develop Team process include, but are not limited to, personnel administration, employee training records, and skill assessments.

Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

Q

Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.

Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.

Q

Project team assignments

The project is staffed when appropriate people have been assigned to the team. The documentation of these assignments can include a project team directory, memos to team members, and names inserted into other parts of the project management plan, such as project organization charts and schedules.

Q

Resource calendars

A resource calendar is a calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available. Information on which resources (such as human resources, equipment, and material) are potentially available during a planned activity period, is used for estimating resource utilization. Resource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be available during the project. This information may be at the activity or project level. This knowledge includes consideration of attributes such as resource experience and/or skill level, as well as various geographical locations from which the resources originate and when they may be available.

Q

Team charter

Team charter is a document that records the team values, agreements, and operating guidelines, as well as establishing clear expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members.

Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.

Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

Q

Colocation

Colocation, also referred to as “tight matrix,” involves placing many or all of the most active project team members in the same physical location to enhance their ability to perform as a team. Colocation can be temporary, such as at strategically important times during the project, or for the entire project. Colocation strategies can include a team meeting room (sometimes called “war room”), places to post schedules, and other conveniences that enhance communication and a sense of community. While colocation is considered a good strategy, the use of virtual teams can bring benefits such as the use of more skilled resources, reduced costs, less travel, and relocation expenses and the proximity of team members to suppliers, customers, or other key stakeholders.

Q

Virtual teams

The use of virtual teams creates new possibilities when acquiring project team members. Virtual teams can be defined as groups of people with a shared goal who fulfill their roles with little or no time spent meeting face to face. The availability of communication technology such as e-mail, audio conferencing, social media, web-based meetings and video conferencing has made virtual teams feasible.

Q

Communication technology

The methods used to transfer information among project stakeholders may vary significantly. For example, a project team may use techniques from brief conversations to extended meetings, or from simple written documents to extensive materials (e.g., schedules, databases, and websites), which are accessible online as methods of communication.

Q

Interpersonal and team skills

Interpersonal and team skills are skills used to effectively lead and interact with team members and other stakeholders.

Q

Conflict management

Sources of conflict include scarce resources, scheduling priorities, and personal work styles. Team ground rules, group norms, and solid project management practices, like communication planning and role definition, reduce the amount of conflict. Successful conflict management results in greater productivity and positive working relationships. When managed properly, differences of opinion can lead to increased creativity and better decision making. If the differences become a negative factor, project team members are initially responsible for their resolution. If conflict escalates, the project manager should help facilitate a satisfactory resolution. Conflict should be addressed early and usually in private, using a direct, collaborative approach. If disruptive conflict continues, formal procedures may be used, including disciplinary actions.

Q

Influencing

Influencing is a key skill for all project managers due to often having little or no direct authority over team members in a matrixed environment. Influencing skills include the ability to be persuasive and clearly articulate points and positions. Influencing also requires high levels of active and effective listening skills as well as keen awareness and observations of the professional environment within which they operate.

Q

Motivation

Motivation provides a reason for someone to act. Teams are motivated by empowering them to participate in decision making and encouraging them to work independently.

Q

Negotiation

Negotiation is a strategy of conferring with parties of shared or opposed interests with a view toward compromise or reaching an agreement. Negotiation is an integral part of project management and done well, increases the probability of project success.

Q

Team building

Team building is conducting activities that enhance the team’s social relations and build a collaborative and cooperative working environment. Activities can vary from a 5-minute agenda item in a status to review meeting to an offsite, professionally facilitated event designed to improve interpersonal relationships. The objective is to help individual team members work together effectively.

Q

Recognition and rewards

Part of the team development process involves recognizing and rewarding desirable behavior. The original plans concerning ways in which to reward people are developed during the Plan Resource Management process. It is important to recognize that a particular reward given to any individual will be effective only if it satisfies a need which is valued by that individual. Award decisions are made, formally or informally, during the process of managing the project team through project performance appraisals. Cultural differences should be considered when determining recognition and rewards. A good strategy for project managers is to give the team recognition throughout the life cycle of the project rather than waiting until the project is completed.

Q

Training

Training includes all activities designed to enhance the competencies of the project team members. Training can be formal or informal. Examples of training methods include classroom, online, computer-based, on-the-job training from another project team member, mentoring, and coaching. If project team members lack the necessary management or technical skills, such skills can be developed as part of the project work. Scheduled training takes place as stated in the resource management plan. Unplanned training takes place as a result of observation, conversation, and project performance appraisals conducted during the controlling process of managing the project team. Training costs could be included in the project budget, or supported by the performing organization if the added skills may be useful for future projects. It could be performed by in-house or external trainers.

Q

Individual and team assessments

Individual and team assessments are tools that give the project manager and the project team insight into areas of strengths and weaknesses. These tools help project managers assess team members’ preferences, aspirations, how they process and organize information, how they make decisions, and how they interact with people.

Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.

Q

Team performance assessments

As project team development efforts such as training, team building, and collocation are implemented, the project management team makes formal or informal assessments of the project team’s effectiveness. Effective team development strategies and activities are expected to increase the team’s performance, which increases the likelihood of meeting project objectives. Team performance assessment criteria should be determined by all appropriate parties and incorporated in the Develop Team inputs. The performance of a successful team is measured in terms of technical success according to agreed-upon project objectives (including quality levels), performance on project schedule (finished on time), and performance on budget (finished within financial constraints). High-performance teams are characterized by these task-oriented and results-oriented outcomes.

Q

Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

Q

Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

Q

Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.

Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.

Q

Project team assignments

The project is staffed when appropriate people have been assigned to the team. The documentation of these assignments can include a project team directory, memos to team members, and names inserted into other parts of the project management plan, such as project organization charts and schedules.

Q

Resource calendars

A resource calendar is a calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available. Information on which resources (such as human resources, equipment, and material) are potentially available during a planned activity period, is used for estimating resource utilization. Resource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be available during the project. This information may be at the activity or project level. This knowledge includes consideration of attributes such as resource experience and/or skill level, as well as various geographical locations from which the resources originate and when they may be available.

Q

Team charter

Team charter is a document that records the team values, agreements, and operating guidelines, as well as establishing clear expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members.

Q

Enterprise environmental factors updates

The enterprise environmental factors that may be updated as a result of the Develop Team process include, but are not limited to, personnel administration, employee training records, and skill assessments.

Q

Organizational process assets updates

The organizational process assets that may be updated include, but are not limited to, report formats and lessons learned documentation. This documentation may become part of the historical database for both this project and the performing organization and may include the causes of issues, reasons behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned during the project.

Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

Q

Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.

Q

Procurement management plan

The procurement management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how a project team will acquire goods and services from outside the performing organization. It describes how the procurement processes will be managed from developing procurement documents through contract closure.

Q

Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.

Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

Q

Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.

Q

Resource calendars

A resource calendar is a calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available. Information on which resources (such as human resources, equipment, and material) are potentially available during a planned activity period, is used for estimating resource utilization. Resource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be available during the project. This information may be at the activity or project level. This knowledge includes consideration of attributes such as resource experience and/or skill level, as well as various geographical locations from which the resources originate and when they may be available.

Q

Resource requirements

Resource requirements are the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.

Q

Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.

Q

Enterprise environmental factors updates

The enterprise environmental factors that may be updated as a result of the Develop Team process include, but are not limited to, personnel administration, employee training records, and skill assessments.

Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

Q

Decision making

Decision making techniques are used to select a course of action from different alternatives. There are two decision-making tools and techniques.

Q

Multicriteria decision analysis

Selection criteria are often used as a part of acquiring the project team. By use of a multicriteria decision analysis tool, criteria are developed and used to rate or score potential team members. The criteria are weighted according to the relative importance of the needs within the team.

Q

Interpersonal and team skills

Interpersonal and team skills are skills used to effectively lead and interact with team members and other stakeholders.

Q

Negotiation

Negotiation is a strategy of conferring with parties of shared or opposed interests with a view toward compromise or reaching an agreement. Negotiation is an integral part of project management and done well, increases the probability of project success.

Q

Pre-assignment

When project team members are selected in advance, they are considered pre-assigned. This situation can occur if the project is the result of specific people being identified as part of a competitive proposal, if the project is dependent upon the expertise of particular persons, or if some staff assignments are defined within the project charter.

Q

Virtual teams

The use of virtual teams creates new possibilities when acquiring project team members. Virtual teams can be defined as groups of people with a shared goal who fulfill their roles with little or no time spent meeting face to face. The availability of communication technology such as e-mail, audio conferencing, social media, web-based meetings and video conferencing has made virtual teams feasible.

Q

Physical resource assignments

Physical resource assignments describe the expected resource utilization along with details such as type, amount, location, and whether the resource is internal to the organization or outsourced. They are dynamic and subject to change due to availability, the project, organization, environment, or other factors.

Q

Project team assignments

The project is staffed when appropriate people have been assigned to the team. The documentation of these assignments can include a project team directory, memos to team members, and names inserted into other parts of the project management plan, such as project organization charts and schedules.

Q

Resource calendars

A resource calendar is a calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available. Information on which resources (such as human resources, equipment, and material) are potentially available during a planned activity period, is used for estimating resource utilization. Resource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be available during the project. This information may be at the activity or project level. This knowledge includes consideration of attributes such as resource experience and/or skill level, as well as various geographical locations from which the resources originate and when they may be available.

Q

Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

Q

Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

Q

Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.

Q

Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.

Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.

Q

Resource breakdown structure

The resource breakdown structure is a hierarchical representation of resources by category and type. Examples of resource categories include labor, material, equipment, and supplies. Resource types may include the skill level, grade level, or other information as appropriate to the project. The resource breakdown structure is useful for organizing and reporting project schedule data with resource utilization information.

Q

Resource requirements

Resource requirements are the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.

Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

Q

Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.

Q

Enterprise environmental factors updates

The enterprise environmental factors that may be updated as a result of the Develop Team process include, but are not limited to, personnel administration, employee training records, and skill assessments.

Q

Organizational process assets updates

The organizational process assets that may be updated include, but are not limited to, report formats and lessons learned documentation. This documentation may become part of the historical database for both this project and the performing organization and may include the causes of issues, reasons behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned during the project.

Q
Q
Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

Q

Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.

Q

Communications management plan

The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.

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Risk management plan

The risk management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed. Key elements of the risk management plan that contribute to the Identify Risks process are the assignments of roles and responsibilities, provision for risk management activities in the budget and schedule, and categories of risk, which are sometimes expressed as a risk breakdown structure.

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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

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Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.

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Change log

A change log is used to document changes that occur during a project. These changes and their impact to the project in terms of time, cost, and risk, are communicated to the appropriate stakeholders. Rejected change requests are also captured in the change log.

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Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

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Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.

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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

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Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.

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Agreements

A procurement agreement includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies regarding what the seller is to perform or provide. It is the project management team’s responsibility to make certain that all agreements meet the specific needs of the project while adhering to organizational procurement policies. Depending upon the application area, an agreement can also be called an understanding, a contract, a subcontract, or a purchase order. Regardless of the document’s complexity, a contract is a mutually binding legal agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified products, services, or results, and obligates the buyer to compensate the seller. A contract is a legal relationship subject to remedy in the courts.

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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.

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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.

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Benchmarking

Benchmarking involves comparing actual or planned practices, such as processes and operations, to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance. The organizations compared during benchmarking can be internal or external.

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Data gathering

Data gathering is a technique used to collect data and information from various sources for the purposes of later analyzing the data and assessing information.

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Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.

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Assumption and constraint analysis

Every project and its project management plan are conceived and developed based on a set of assumptions and within a series of constraints. These are often already incorporated in the scope baseline and project estimates. Assumption and constraint analysis explores the validity of assumptions and constraints to determine which pose a risk to the project. Threats may be identified from the inaccuracy, instability, inconsistency, or incompleteness of assumptions. Constraints may give rise to opportunities through removing or relaxing a limiting factor that affects the execution of a project or process.

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Root cause analysis

Root cause analysis is an analytical technique used to determine the basic underlying reason that causes a variance, defect, or risk. A root cause may underlie more than one variance, defect, or risk.

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Decision making

Decision making techniques are used to select a course of action from different alternatives. There are two decision-making tools and techniques.

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Prioritization and ranking

Decision-making techniques that can be used for this process include but are not limited to prioritization/ranking. Stakeholder requirements need to be prioritized and ranked, as do the stakeholders themselves. Stakeholders with the most interest and the highest influence are often prioritized at the top of the list.

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Data representation

Data representation is used to show graphic representations or other methods used to convey data and information. There are 15 data representation tools and techniques.

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Mind mapping

Mind mapping is a technique used to consolidate ideas created through individual brainstorming sessions into a single map to reflect commonality and differences in understanding and to generate new ideas.

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Stakeholder engagement assessment matrix

The stakeholder engagement assessment matrix is a matrix that compares current and desired stakeholder engagement levels.

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Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.

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Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.

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