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4 Project Integration Management

Integration management is the “glue” that holds all project work together. The aim of all processes within this knowledge area is to identify, unify, and coordinate the various processes into a successful project. Develop Project Charter is the first process in this effort, and Close Project or Phase is the last. Additionally, these are the first and last processes completed, and they formally authorize and end a project, respectively. Integration Management processes are part of every process group, and they include the actual processes where work is directed, managed, and monitored, and where change is controlled.

Processes of Project Integration Management

  • 4.1 Develop Project Charter
  • 4.2 Develop Project Mgt. Plan
  • 4.3 Direct & Manage Project Work
  • 4.4 Manage Project Knowledge
  • 4.5 Monitor & Control Project Work
  • 4.6 Perform Int. Change Control
  • 4.7 Close Project or Phase

4.0 Project Integration Mgt.

Tailoring Considerations

On their own, all projects are different, but even more so when coupled with specific enterprise environmental factors and organizational influences. As a result, project managers may need to tailor how Project Integration Management processes are applied throughout the project. Considerations for such customizations may include the following:

Project and Developmental Life Cycles

Project managers should consider the most appropriate approach to project implementation regarding predictive or adaptive approaches. Additionally, different development approaches (incremental, iterative, hybrid) should be considered based on the specific needs of the project. The unique aspects of a project and the organization in which it is being delivered may call for adaptations of such things as change, governance, knowledge management, and overall management. Although Integration Management processes are very prescriptive, determining the extent to which they are used should be based on the needs of the project relative to the organization’s demands and expectations.

4.0 Project Integration Mgt.

Agile Considerations and Emerging Practices

Project management methodologies are evolving to incorporate new practices such as agile and other iterative techniques. Along with these emerging practices is the expansion of the role of the project manager. It is becoming more common for project managers to be called on to develop the business case, which historically has been the responsibility of management. The project manager is becoming more integrated into the key activities and conversations at senior levels. These trends suggest a project manager’s interpersonal and team skills must be acute, because in agile projects, these skills will be needed to engage the project team in a more collaborative and iterative fashion while consistently engaging sponsors and stakeholders for feedback and re-scoping. Using an agile approach means the project manager must continue to conduct the activities and responsibilities outlined in the Integration Management processes, but will also need to build and maintain a collaborative decision-making environment that will support the agile approach.Project Scope Management.

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5.0 Project Scope Mgt.

Tailoring Considerations

Tailoring considerations for Scope Management activities should include thoughtful adaptations for how the project should manage knowledge depending on the organization’s formal or informal requirements management systems. Validation and control activities will also depend on the formality of an organization’s policies and procedures.

5.0 Project Scope Mgt.

Agile Considerations and Emerging Practices

Projects with agile life cycles are intended to respond to high levels of change, and they require consistent stakeholder engagement. The scope of an agile or adaptive project will be decomposed into a set of requirements, sometimes referred to as a product backlog. At the beginning of an iteration, the team works on the highest-priority items on the backlog list. The processes of Collect Requirements, Define Scope, and Create WBS are repeated for each iteration. Consistent customer and stakeholder engagement ensures that timely feedback on deliverables is received and that the product backlog reflects their current needs.

With requirements gaining more attention in the field of project management, organizations are recognizing how business analysis can be used as a competitive advantage. As a result, business analysis activities are becoming more common before a project is even initiated. These activities are focused on identifying business needs and recommending viable solutions for meeting those needs. With this in mind, project managers need to consider the business analyst as a key collaborator and seek to fully comprehend the business analyst’s role to increase the likelihood of project success.

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7 Project Cost Management

Project Cost Management includes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, financing, funding, managing, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget.

Processes of Project Cost Management

  • 7.1 Plan Cost Management
  • 7.2 Estimate Costs
  • 7.3 Determine Budget
  • 7.4 Control Costs

7.0 Project Cost Mgt.

Tailoring Considerations

Because each project is unique, Cost Management processes may need to be tailored to meet specific needs. Some key considerations for tailoring are the use of agile methodologies and how this will impact cost estimations and earned value management. The existence, or lack of, formal cost estimating policies and procedures will also affect a project’s estimating and budgeting approach.

7.0 Project Cost Mgt.

Agile Considerations and Emerging Practices

Among some of the newer emerging practices in the project management profession is the expansion of earned value management concepts. Earned schedules (ES) has surfaced as an adaptation to the schedule variance (SV) measure to include ES – AT (actual time) where a calculated result greater than 0 indicates the project is ahead of schedule, and a value less than 0 indicates the project is behind schedule. The schedule performance index (SPI) can also be adapted with this approach using ES/AT to indicate the project’s efficiency of executing the work. Similar to the existing SPI result interpretation, a value greater than 1 indicates an efficiency better than project schedule, while a value less than 1 indicates an efficiency leaving the project behind schedule.

Earned schedule (ES) and actual time (AT) offer an emerging variant
to the schedule variance (SV) calculation, where;
SV = ES – AT

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4.1 Develop Project Charter

Develop Project Charter is the process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

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Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
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Business documents

Business documents (business case and benefits management plan) are two key documents that are interdependent and initially developed prior to the project. The project manager is responsible for maintaining and iteratively updating business documents throughout the project.
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Business case

The business case or similar document describes the necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether or not the project is worth the required investment. It is commonly used for decision making by managers or executives above the project level. Typically, the business need and the cost-benefit analysis are contained in the business case to justify and establish boundaries for the project, and such analysis is usually completed by a business analyst using various stakeholder inputs. The sponsor should agree to the scope and limitations of the business case.
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Agreements

A procurement agreement includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies regarding what the seller is to perform or provide. It is the project management team’s responsibility to make certain that all agreements meet the specific needs of the project while adhering to organizational procurement policies. Depending upon the application area, an agreement can also be called an understanding, a contract, a subcontract, or a purchase order. Regardless of the document’s complexity, a contract is a mutually binding legal agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified products, services, or results, and obligates the buyer to compensate the seller. A contract is a legal relationship subject to remedy in the courts.
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
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Data gathering

Data gathering is a technique used to collect data and information from various sources for the purposes of later analyzing the data and assessing information.
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Brainstorming

Brainstorming is a common data-gathering technique that derives input from individuals and groups usually perceived as subject matter experts.
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Focus groups

Focus groups bring together qualified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product, service, or result. A trained moderator guides the group through an interactive discussion, designed to be more conversational than a one-on-one interview.
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Interviews

An interview is a formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly. It is typically performed by asking prepared and spontaneous questions and recording the responses. Interviews are often conducted on an individual basis between an interviewer and an interviewee, but may involve multiple interviewers and/or multiple interviewees. Interviewing experienced project participants, sponsors and other executives, and subject matter experts can aid in identifying and defining the features and functions of the desired product deliverables. Interviews are also useful for obtaining confidential information.
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Interpersonal and team skills

Interpersonal and team skills are skills used to effectively lead and interact with team members and other stakeholders.
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Conflict management

Sources of conflict include scarce resources, scheduling priorities, and personal work styles. Team ground rules, group norms, and solid project management practices, like communication planning and role definition, reduce the amount of conflict. Successful conflict management results in greater productivity and positive working relationships. When managed properly, differences of opinion can lead to increased creativity and better decision making. If the differences become a negative factor, project team members are initially responsible for their resolution. If conflict escalates, the project manager should help facilitate a satisfactory resolution. Conflict should be addressed early and usually in private, using a direct, collaborative approach. If disruptive conflict continues, formal procedures may be used, including disciplinary actions.
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Facilitation

Facilitation is the ability to effectively guide a group event to a successful decision, solution or conclusion. A good facilitator ensures effective participation and inclusion.
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Meeting management

Meeting management is the process of ensuring meetings achieve their intended objectives. Good meeting management does this effectively and efficiently through proper preparation, setting and managing expectations, keeping good records and ensuring participant promptness and participation.
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Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
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4.2 Develop Project Management Plan

Develop Project Management Plan is the process of defining, preparing, and coordinating all subsidiary plans and integrating them into a comprehensive project management plan. The key benefit of this process is a central document that defines the basis of all project work.
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Outputs from other processes

Outputs from other processes are exactly as stated, simply outputs from other processes.
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
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Data gathering

Data gathering is a technique used to collect data and information from various sources for the purposes of later analyzing the data and assessing information.
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Brainstorming

Brainstorming is a common data-gathering technique that derives input from individuals and groups usually perceived as subject matter experts.
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Checklists

A checklist is a list of items, actions, or points to be considered. It is often used as a reminder.
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Focus groups

Focus groups bring together qualified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product, service, or result. A trained moderator guides the group through an interactive discussion, designed to be more conversational than a one-on-one interview.
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Interviews

An interview is a formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly. It is typically performed by asking prepared and spontaneous questions and recording the responses. Interviews are often conducted on an individual basis between an interviewer and an interviewee, but may involve multiple interviewers and/or multiple interviewees. Interviewing experienced project participants, sponsors and other executives, and subject matter experts can aid in identifying and defining the features and functions of the desired product deliverables. Interviews are also useful for obtaining confidential information.
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Interpersonal and team skills

Interpersonal and team skills are skills used to effectively lead and interact with team members and other stakeholders.
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Conflict management

Sources of conflict include scarce resources, scheduling priorities, and personal work styles. Team ground rules, group norms, and solid project management practices, like communication planning and role definition, reduce the amount of conflict. Successful conflict management results in greater productivity and positive working relationships. When managed properly, differences of opinion can lead to increased creativity and better decision making. If the differences become a negative factor, project team members are initially responsible for their resolution. If conflict escalates, the project manager should help facilitate a satisfactory resolution. Conflict should be addressed early and usually in private, using a direct, collaborative approach. If disruptive conflict continues, formal procedures may be used, including disciplinary actions.
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Facilitation

Facilitation is the ability to effectively guide a group event to a successful decision, solution or conclusion. A good facilitator ensures effective participation and inclusion.
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Meeting management

Meeting management is the process of ensuring meetings achieve their intended objectives. Good meeting management does this effectively and efficiently through proper preparation, setting and managing expectations, keeping good records and ensuring participant promptness and participation.
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Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
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Quality management plan

The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how the organization’s quality policies will be implemented. It describes how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project. The quality management plan may be formal or informal, detailed, or broadly framed. The style and detail of the quality management plan are determined by the requirements of the project. The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. The benefits of this review can include a sharper focus on the project’s value proposition and reductions in costs and in the frequency of schedule overruns that were caused by rework.
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Project life cycle description

The project life cycle determines the series of phases that a project passes through from its inception to the end of the project.
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Development approach

Development approach is the method used to create and evolve the product, service, or result during the project life cycle, such as predictive, iterative, incremental, agile, or a hybrid method.
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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
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Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
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Alternatives analysis

Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and make-rent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.
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Scope management plan

The scope management plan is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified. The scope management plan is a major input into the Develop Project Management Plan process, and the other scope management processes.
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Scope management plan

The scope management plan is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified. The scope management plan is a major input into the Develop Project Management Plan process, and the other scope management processes.
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Business case

The business case or similar document describes the necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether or not the project is worth the required investment. It is commonly used for decision making by managers or executives above the project level. Typically, the business need and the cost-benefit analysis are contained in the business case to justify and establish boundaries for the project, and such analysis is usually completed by a business analyst using various stakeholder inputs. The sponsor should agree to the scope and limitations of the business case.
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Business documents

Business documents (business case and benefits management plan) are two key documents that are interdependent and initially developed prior to the project. The project manager is responsible for maintaining and iteratively updating business documents throughout the project.
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Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
Q

Agreements

A procurement agreement includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies regarding what the seller is to perform or provide. It is the project management team’s responsibility to make certain that all agreements meet the specific needs of the project while adhering to organizational procurement policies. Depending upon the application area, an agreement can also be called an understanding, a contract, a subcontract, or a purchase order. Regardless of the document’s complexity, a contract is a mutually binding legal agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified products, services, or results, and obligates the buyer to compensate the seller. A contract is a legal relationship subject to remedy in the courts.
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
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Data gathering

Data gathering is a technique used to collect data and information from various sources for the purposes of later analyzing the data and assessing information.
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Brainstorming

Brainstorming is a common data-gathering technique that derives input from individuals and groups usually perceived as subject matter experts.
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Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
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Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.
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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
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Questionnaires and surveys

Questionnaires and surveys are written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a large number of respondents. Questionnaires and/or surveys are most appropriate with varied audiences, when a quick turnaround is needed, when respondents are geographically dispersed, and where statistical analysis is appropriate.
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Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
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Document analysis

Document analysis is used to elicit requirements by analyzing existing documentation and identifying relevant requirements. Examples of documents that may be analyzed include, but are not limited to: business plans, marketing literature, agreements, requests for proposal, current process flows, logical data models, business rules repositories, application software documentation, business process or interface documentation, use cases, other requirements documentation, problem/issue logs, policies, procedures, and regulatory documentation such as laws, codes, or ordinances, etc.
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Data representation

Data representation is used to show graphic representations or other methods used to convey data and information. There are 15 data representation tools and techniques.
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Requirements management plan

The requirements management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed. The project manager chooses the most effective relationship for the project and documents this approach in the requirements management plan. Many of the requirements management plan components are based on that relationship.
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Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.
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Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.
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Interviews

An interview is a formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly. It is typically performed by asking prepared and spontaneous questions and recording the responses. Interviews are often conducted on an individual basis between an interviewer and an interviewee, but may involve multiple interviewers and/or multiple interviewees. Interviewing experienced project participants, sponsors and other executives, and subject matter experts can aid in identifying and defining the features and functions of the desired product deliverables. Interviews are also useful for obtaining confidential information.
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Focus groups

Focus groups bring together qualified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product, service, or result. A trained moderator guides the group through an interactive discussion, designed to be more conversational than a one-on-one interview.
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Benchmarking

Benchmarking involves comparing actual or planned practices, such as processes and operations, to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance. The organizations compared during benchmarking can be internal or external.
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Decision making

Decision making techniques are used to select a course of action from different alternatives. There are two decision-making tools and techniques.
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Voting

Voting is a collective decision-making technique and an assessment process having multiple alternatives with an expected outcome in the form of future actions. These techniques can be used to generate, classify, and prioritize product requirements. Can include making decisions based on unanimity, majority, or plurality.
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Multicriteria decision analysis

Selection criteria are often used as a part of acquiring the project team. By use of a multicriteria decision analysis tool, criteria are developed and used to rate or score potential team members. The criteria are weighted according to the relative importance of the needs within the team.
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Autocratic decision making

In this decision-making technique, one individual takes the responsibility for making the decision for the entire group.
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Affinity diagrams

Affinity diagrams allow large numbers of ideas to be classified into groups for review and analysis.
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Mind mapping

Mind mapping is a technique used to consolidate ideas created through individual brainstorming sessions into a single map to reflect commonality and differences in understanding and to generate new ideas.
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Nominal group technique

Nominal group technique enhances brainstorming with a voting process used to rank the most useful ideas for further brainstorming or for prioritization.
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Observation and conversation

Observation and conversation are used to stay in touch with the work and attitudes of project team members. The project management team monitors progress toward project deliverables, accomplishments that are a source of pride for team members, and interpersonal issues.
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Facilitation

Facilitation is the ability to effectively guide a group event to a successful decision, solution or conclusion. A good facilitator ensures effective participation and inclusion.
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Context diagrams

The context diagram is an example of a scope model. Context diagrams visually depict the product scope by showing a business system (process, equipment, computer system, etc.), and how people and other systems (actors) interact with it. Context diagrams show inputs to the business system, the actor(s) providing the input, the outputs from the business system, and the actor(s) receiving the output.
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Prototypes

Prototyping is a method of obtaining early feedback on requirements by providing a working model of the expected product before actually building it. Since a prototype is tangible, it allows stakeholders to experiment with a model of the final product rather than being limited to discussing abstract representations of their requirements. Prototypes support the concept of progressive elaboration in iterative cycles of mock-up creation, user experimentation, feedback generation, and prototype revision. When enough feedback cycles have been performed, the requirements obtained from the prototype are sufficiently complete to move to a design or build phase. Storyboards are used in a variety of industries, such as film, advertising, instructional design, and on agile and other software development projects. In software development, storyboards use mock-ups to show navigation paths through web pages, screens, or other user interfaces.
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Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.
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Requirements traceability matrix

The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them. The implementation of a requirements traceability matrix helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives. It provides a means to track requirements throughout the project life cycle, helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. Finally, it provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
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Quality management plan

The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how the organization’s quality policies will be implemented. It describes how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project. The quality management plan may be formal or informal, detailed, or broadly framed. The style and detail of the quality management plan are determined by the requirements of the project. The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. The benefits of this review can include a sharper focus on the project’s value proposition and reductions in costs and in the frequency of schedule overruns that were caused by rework.
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Project life cycle description

The project life cycle determines the series of phases that a project passes through from its inception to the end of the project.
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Development approach

Development approach is the method used to create and evolve the product, service, or result during the project life cycle, such as predictive, iterative, incremental, agile, or a hybrid method.
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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
Q
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Alternatives analysis

Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and make-rent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.
Q

Scope management plan

The scope management plan is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified. The scope management plan is a major input into the Develop Project Management Plan process, and the other scope management processes.
Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
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Alternatives generation

Alternatives generation is a technique used to develop as many potential options as possible in order to identify different approaches to execute and perform the work of the project. A variety of general management techniques can be used, such as brainstorming, lateral thinking, analysis of alternatives, etc.
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Product analysis

For projects that have a product as a deliverable, as opposed to a service or result, product analysis can be an effective tool. Each application area has one or more generally accepted methods for translating high-level product descriptions into tangible deliverables. Product analysis includes techniques such as product breakdown, systems analysis, requirements analysis, systems engineering, value engineering, and value analysis.
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Project scope statement

The project scope statement is the description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints. The project scope statement documents the entire scope, including project and product scope. It describes, in detail, the project’s deliverables and the work required to create those deliverables. It also provides a common understanding of the project scope among project stakeholders. It may contain explicit scope exclusions that can assist in managing stakeholder expectations. It enables the project team to perform more detailed planning, guides the project team’s work during execution, and provides the baseline for evaluating whether requests for changes or additional work are contained within or outside the project’s boundaries.
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
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Quality management plan

The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how the organization’s quality policies will be implemented. It describes how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project. The quality management plan may be formal or informal, detailed, or broadly framed. The style and detail of the quality management plan are determined by the requirements of the project. The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. The benefits of this review can include a sharper focus on the project’s value proposition and reductions in costs and in the frequency of schedule overruns that were caused by rework.
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Project life cycle description

The project life cycle determines the series of phases that a project passes through from its inception to the end of the project.
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Development approach

Development approach is the method used to create and evolve the product, service, or result during the project life cycle, such as predictive, iterative, incremental, agile, or a hybrid method.
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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
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Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
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Alternatives analysis

Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and make-rent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.
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Scope management plan

The scope management plan is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified. The scope management plan is a major input into the Develop Project Management Plan process, and the other scope management processes.
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Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
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Alternatives generation

Alternatives generation is a technique used to develop as many potential options as possible in order to identify different approaches to execute and perform the work of the project. A variety of general management techniques can be used, such as brainstorming, lateral thinking, analysis of alternatives, etc.
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Product analysis

For projects that have a product as a deliverable, as opposed to a service or result, product analysis can be an effective tool. Each application area has one or more generally accepted methods for translating high-level product descriptions into tangible deliverables. Product analysis includes techniques such as product breakdown, systems analysis, requirements analysis, systems engineering, value engineering, and value analysis.
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Project scope statement

The project scope statement is the description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints. The project scope statement documents the entire scope, including project and product scope. It describes, in detail, the project’s deliverables and the work required to create those deliverables. It also provides a common understanding of the project scope among project stakeholders. It may contain explicit scope exclusions that can assist in managing stakeholder expectations. It enables the project team to perform more detailed planning, guides the project team’s work during execution, and provides the baseline for evaluating whether requests for changes or additional work are contained within or outside the project’s boundaries.
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Decomposition

Decomposition is a technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts. The work package is the work defined at the lowest level of the WBS for which cost and duration can be estimated and managed. The level of decomposition is often guided by the degree of control needed to effectively manage the project. The level of detail for work packages will vary with the size and complexity of the project.
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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
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Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.
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Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
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Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.
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Scope management plan

The scope management plan is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified. The scope management plan is a major input into the Develop Project Management Plan process, and the other scope management processes.
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Development approach

Development approach is the method used to create and evolve the product, service, or result during the project life cycle, such as predictive, iterative, incremental, agile, or a hybrid method.
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
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Schedule management plan

The schedule management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds.
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Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
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6.2 Define Activities

Define Activities is the process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables. The key benefit of this process is to break down work packages into activities that provide a basis for estimating, scheduling, executing, monitoring, and controlling the project work.
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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
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Activity list

The activity list is a comprehensive list that includes all schedule activities required on the project. The activity list also includes the activity identifier and a scope of work description for each activity in sufficient detail to ensure that project team members understand what work is required to be completed. Each activity should have a unique title that describes its place in the schedule, even if that activity title is displayed outside the context of the project schedule.
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Rolling wave planning

Rolling wave planning is an iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level. It is a form of progressive elaboration. Therefore, work can exist at various levels of detail depending on where it is in the project life cycle. During early strategic planning, when information is less defined, work packages may be decomposed to the known level of detail. As more is known about the upcoming events in the near term, work packages can be decomposed into activities.
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Activity attributes

Activities, distinct from milestones, have durations, during which the work of that activity is performed, and may have resources and costs associated with that work. Activity attributes extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity. The components for each activity evolve over time. During the initial stages of the project, they include the activity identifier (ID), WBS ID, and activity label or name, and when completed, may include activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags (Section 6.3.2.3), resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions. Activity attributes can be used to identify the person responsible for executing the work, geographic area, or place where the work has to be performed, the project calendar the activity is assigned to, and activity type such as level of effort (often abbreviated as LOE), discrete effort, and apportioned effort. Activity attributes are used for schedule development and for selecting, ordering, and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports. The number of attributes varies by application area.
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Milestone list

A milestone is a significant point or event in a project. A milestone list is a list identifying all project milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory, such as those required by contract, or optional, such as those based upon historical information. Milestones are similar to regular schedule activities, with the same structure and attributes, but they have zero duration because milestones represent a moment in time.
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Schedule baseline

A schedule baseline is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is accepted and approved by the appropriate stakeholders as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. During monitoring and controlling, the approved baseline dates are compared to the actual start and finish dates to determine whether variances have occurred. The schedule baseline is a component of the project management plan.
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Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.
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6.3 Sequence Activities

Sequence Activities is the process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities. The key benefit of this process is that it defines the logical sequence of work to obtain the greatest efficiency given all project constraints.
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Precedence diagramming method (PDM)

The precedence diagramming method (PDM) is a technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed. Activity-on-node (AON) is one method of representing a precedence diagram. This is the method used by most project management software packages. PDM includes four types of dependencies or logical relationships. A predecessor activity is an activity that logically comes before a dependent activity in a schedule. A successor activity is a dependent activity that logically comes after another activity in a schedule.
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Dependency determination and integration

Dependencies may be characterized by the following attributes: mandatory or discretionary, internal or external. Dependency has four attributes, but two can be applicable at the same time in the following ways: mandatory external dependencies, mandatory internal dependencies, discretionary external dependencies, or discretionary internal dependencies.
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Leads and lags

Leads and lags are refinements applied during network analysis to develop a viable schedule by adjusting the start time of the successor activities. Leads are used in limited circumstances to advance a successor activity with respect to the predecessor activity, and lags are used in limited circumstances where processes require a set period of time to elapse between the predecessors and successors without work or resource impact.
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Project management information system

Project management information system provides a standard set of tools for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and performance. It also allows the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, and presentations. Graphical capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information.
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Project schedule network diagrams

A project schedule network diagram is a graphical representation of the logical relationships, also referred to as dependencies, among the project schedule activities. Figure 6-11 illustrates a project schedule network diagram. A project schedule network diagram is produced manually or by using project management software. It can include full project details, or have one or more summary activities. A summary narrative can accompany the diagram and describe the basic approach used to sequence the activities. Any unusual activity sequences within the network should be fully described within the narrative.
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6.4 Estimate Activity Durations

Estimate Activity Durations is the process of estimating the number of work periods needed to complete
individual activities with estimated resources. The key benefit of this process is that it provides the amount of time each activity will take to complete, which is a major input into the Develop Schedule process.

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Schedule management plan

The schedule management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds.
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Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.
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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
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Activity attributes

Activities, distinct from milestones, have durations, during which the work of that activity is performed, and may have resources and costs associated with that work. Activity attributes extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity. The components for each activity evolve over time. During the initial stages of the project, they include the activity identifier (ID), WBS ID, and activity label or name, and when completed, may include activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags (Section 6.3.2.3), resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions. Activity attributes can be used to identify the person responsible for executing the work, geographic area, or place where the work has to be performed, the project calendar the activity is assigned to, and activity type such as level of effort (often abbreviated as LOE), discrete effort, and apportioned effort. Activity attributes are used for schedule development and for selecting, ordering, and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports. The number of attributes varies by application area.
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Activity list

The activity list is a comprehensive list that includes all schedule activities required on the project. The activity list also includes the activity identifier and a scope of work description for each activity in sufficient detail to ensure that project team members understand what work is required to be completed. Each activity should have a unique title that describes its place in the schedule, even if that activity title is displayed outside the context of the project schedule.
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Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.
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Milestone list

A milestone is a significant point or event in a project. A milestone list is a list identifying all project milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory, such as those required by contract, or optional, such as those based upon historical information. Milestones are similar to regular schedule activities, with the same structure and attributes, but they have zero duration because milestones represent a moment in time.
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Project team assignments

The project is staffed when appropriate people have been assigned to the team. The documentation of these assignments can include a project team directory, memos to team members, and names inserted into other parts of the project management plan, such as project organization charts and schedules.
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Resource breakdown structure

The resource breakdown structure is a hierarchical representation of resources by category and type. Examples of resource categories include labor, material, equipment, and supplies. Resource types may include the skill level, grade level, or other information as appropriate to the project. The resource breakdown structure is useful for organizing and reporting project schedule data with resource utilization information.
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Resource calendars

A resource calendar is a calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available. Information on which resources (such as human resources, equipment, and material) are potentially available during a planned activity period, is used for estimating resource utilization. Resource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be available during the project. This information may be at the activity or project level. This knowledge includes consideration of attributes such as resource experience and/or skill level, as well as various geographical locations from which the resources originate and when they may be available.
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Resource requirements

Resource requirements are the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.
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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
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Analogous estimating

Analogous estimating is a technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project. Analogous estimating uses parameters from a previous, similar project, such as duration, budget, size, weight, and complexity, as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future project. When estimating durations, this technique relies on the actual duration of previous, similar projects as the basis for estimating the duration of the current project. It is a gross value estimating approach sometimes adjusted for known differences in project complexity. Analogous duration estimating is frequently used to estimate project duration when there is limited amount of detailed information about the project.
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Parametric estimating

Parametric estimating is an estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters. Parametric estimating uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (e.g., square footage in construction) to calculate an estimate for activity parameters, such as cost, budget, and duration. Activity durations can be quantitatively determined by multiplying the quantity of work to be performed by labor hours per unit of work. This technique can produce higher levels of accuracy depending upon the sophistication and underlying data built into the model. Parametric time estimates can be applied to a total project or to segments of a project, in conjunction with other estimating methods.
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Three-point estimating

The accuracy of single-point activity duration estimates may be improved by considering estimation uncertainty and risk. This concept originated with the program evaluation and review technique (PERT). PERT uses three estimates to define an approximate range for an activity’s duration. Duration estimates based on three points with an assumed distribution provide an expected duration and clarify the range of uncertainty around the expected duration.
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Bottom-up estimating

Bottom-up estimating is a method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the lower-level components of the WBS. When an activity cannot be estimated with a reasonable degree of confidence, the work within the activity is decomposed into more detail. The resource needs are estimated. These estimates are then aggregated into a total quantity for each of the activity’s resources. Activities may or may not have dependencies between them that can affect the application and use of resources. If there are dependencies, this pattern of resource usage is reflected and documented in the estimated requirements of the activity.
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Alternatives analysis

Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and make-rent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.
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Reserve analysis

Duration estimates may include contingency reserves, sometimes referred to as time reserves or buffers, into the project schedule to account for schedule uncertainty. Contingency reserves are the estimated duration within the schedule baseline, which is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigation responses are developed. Contingency reserves are associated with the “known-unknowns,” which may be estimated to account for this unknown amount of rework. The contingency reserve may be a percentage of the estimated activity duration, a fixed number of work periods, or may be developed by using quantitative analysis methods such as Monte Carlo simulation. Contingency reserves may be separated from the individual activities and aggregated into buffers. As more precise information about the project becomes available, the contingency reserve may be used, reduced, or eliminated. Contingency should be clearly identified in schedule documentation. Estimates may also be produced for the amount of management reserve of time for the project. Management reserves are a specified amount of the project duration withheld for management control purposes and are reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project. Management reserves are intended to address the “unknown-unknowns” that can affect a project. Management reserve is not included in the schedule baseline, but it is part of the overall project duration requirements. Depending on contract terms, use of management reserves may require a change to the schedule baseline.
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Decision making

Decision making techniques are used to select a course of action from different alternatives. There are two decision-making tools and techniques.
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Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
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Duration estimates

Duration estimates provide quantitative assessments of project durations, ideally expressed as a range, indicating the degree of risk, where a structured review of the documents may indicate that the current estimate is insufficient and poses a risk to the project. Duration estimates provide the starting point from which schedule variability is evaluated.
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Basis of estimates

The amount and type of additional details supporting the cost estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail, the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the cost estimate was derived.
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Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
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Activity attributes

Activities, distinct from milestones, have durations, during which the work of that activity is performed, and may have resources and costs associated with that work. Activity attributes extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity. The components for each activity evolve over time. During the initial stages of the project, they include the activity identifier (ID), WBS ID, and activity label or name, and when completed, may include activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags (Section 6.3.2.3), resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions. Activity attributes can be used to identify the person responsible for executing the work, geographic area, or place where the work has to be performed, the project calendar the activity is assigned to, and activity type such as level of effort (often abbreviated as LOE), discrete effort, and apportioned effort. Activity attributes are used for schedule development and for selecting, ordering, and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports. The number of attributes varies by application area.
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Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.
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Schedule management plan

The schedule management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds.
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Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.
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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
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Activity attributes

Activities, distinct from milestones, have durations, during which the work of that activity is performed, and may have resources and costs associated with that work. Activity attributes extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity. The components for each activity evolve over time. During the initial stages of the project, they include the activity identifier (ID), WBS ID, and activity label or name, and when completed, may include activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags (Section 6.3.2.3), resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions. Activity attributes can be used to identify the person responsible for executing the work, geographic area, or place where the work has to be performed, the project calendar the activity is assigned to, and activity type such as level of effort (often abbreviated as LOE), discrete effort, and apportioned effort. Activity attributes are used for schedule development and for selecting, ordering, and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports. The number of attributes varies by application area.
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Activity list

The activity list is a comprehensive list that includes all schedule activities required on the project. The activity list also includes the activity identifier and a scope of work description for each activity in sufficient detail to ensure that project team members understand what work is required to be completed. Each activity should have a unique title that describes its place in the schedule, even if that activity title is displayed outside the context of the project schedule.
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Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
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Basis of estimates

The amount and type of additional details supporting the cost estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail, the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the cost estimate was derived.
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Duration estimates

Duration estimates provide quantitative assessments of project durations, ideally expressed as a range, indicating the degree of risk, where a structured review of the documents may indicate that the current estimate is insufficient and poses a risk to the project. Duration estimates provide the starting point from which schedule variability is evaluated.
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Milestone list

A milestone is a significant point or event in a project. A milestone list is a list identifying all project milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory, such as those required by contract, or optional, such as those based upon historical information. Milestones are similar to regular schedule activities, with the same structure and attributes, but they have zero duration because milestones represent a moment in time.
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Project schedule network diagrams

A project schedule network diagram is a graphical representation of the logical relationships, also referred to as dependencies, among the project schedule activities. Figure 6-11 illustrates a project schedule network diagram. A project schedule network diagram is produced manually or by using project management software. It can include full project details, or have one or more summary activities. A summary narrative can accompany the diagram and describe the basic approach used to sequence the activities. Any unusual activity sequences within the network should be fully described within the narrative.
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Project team assignments

The project is staffed when appropriate people have been assigned to the team. The documentation of these assignments can include a project team directory, memos to team members, and names inserted into other parts of the project management plan, such as project organization charts and schedules.
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Resource calendars

A resource calendar is a calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available. Information on which resources (such as human resources, equipment, and material) are potentially available during a planned activity period, is used for estimating resource utilization. Resource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be available during the project. This information may be at the activity or project level. This knowledge includes consideration of attributes such as resource experience and/or skill level, as well as various geographical locations from which the resources originate and when they may be available.
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Resource requirements

Resource requirements are the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.
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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
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Agreements

A procurement agreement includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies regarding what the seller is to perform or provide. It is the project management team’s responsibility to make certain that all agreements meet the specific needs of the project while adhering to organizational procurement policies. Depending upon the application area, an agreement can also be called an understanding, a contract, a subcontract, or a purchase order. Regardless of the document’s complexity, a contract is a mutually binding legal agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified products, services, or results, and obligates the buyer to compensate the seller. A contract is a legal relationship subject to remedy in the courts.
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
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Schedule network analysis

Schedule network analysis is a technique that generates the project schedule model. It employs various analytical techniques, such as critical path method, critical chain method, what-if analysis, and resource optimization techniques to calculate the early and late start and finish dates for the uncompleted portions of project activities. Some network paths may have points of path convergence or path divergence that can be identified and used in schedule compression analysis or other analyses.
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Critical path method

The critical path method is a method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model. This schedule network analysis technique calculates the early start, early finish, late start, and late finish dates for all activities without regard for any resource limitations by performing a forward and backward pass analysis through the schedule network. The critical path is the sequence of activities that represents the longest path through a project, which determines the shortest possible project duration. The resulting early and late start and finish dates are not necessarily the project schedule, rather they indicate the time periods within which activity could be executed, using parameters entered in the schedule model for activity durations, logical relationships, leads, lags and other known constraints. The critical path method is used to calculate the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model.
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Resource optimization

Resource optimization techniques can be used to adjust the schedule model due to demand and supply of resources.
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Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
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What-if scenario analysis

What-if scenario analysis is the process of evaluating scenarios in order to predict their effect on project objectives.
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Simulation

Simulation is an analytical technique that models the combined effect of uncertainties to evaluate their potential impact on objectives.
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Leads and lags

Leads and lags are refinements applied during network analysis to develop a viable schedule by adjusting the start time of the successor activities. Leads are used in limited circumstances to advance a successor activity with respect to the predecessor activity, and lags are used in limited circumstances where processes require a set period of time to elapse between the predecessors and successors without work or resource impact.
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Schedule compression

Schedule compression techniques are used to shorten the schedule duration without reducing the project scope, in order to meet schedule constraints, imposed dates, or other schedule objectives.
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Project management information system

Project management information system provides a standard set of tools for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and performance. It also allows the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, and presentations. Graphical capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information.
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Agile release planning

Agile release planning provides a high-level summary time-line of the release schedule (typically 3 to 6 months) based on the product roadmap and the product vision for the product's evolution. It also determines the number of iterations or sprints in the release, and allows the product owner and team to decide how much needs to be developed and how long it will take to have a releasable product based on business goals, dependencies, and impediments.
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Schedule baseline

A schedule baseline is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is accepted and approved by the appropriate stakeholders as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. During monitoring and controlling, the approved baseline dates are compared to the actual start and finish dates to determine whether variances have occurred. The schedule baseline is a component of the project management plan.
Q

Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.
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Schedule data

The schedule data for the project schedule model is the collection of information for describing and controlling the schedule. The schedule data includes at least the schedule milestones, schedule activities, activity attributes, and documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints. The amount of additional data varies by application area.
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Project calendars

A project calendar identifies working days and shifts that are available for scheduled activities. It distinguishes time periods in days or parts of days that are available to complete scheduled activities from time periods that are not available. A schedule model may require more than one project calendar to allow for different work periods for some activities to calculate the project schedule. The project calendars may be updated.
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Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.
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Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.
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Schedule management plan

The schedule management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds.
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Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.
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Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
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Activity attributes

Activities, distinct from milestones, have durations, during which the work of that activity is performed, and may have resources and costs associated with that work. Activity attributes extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity. The components for each activity evolve over time. During the initial stages of the project, they include the activity identifier (ID), WBS ID, and activity label or name, and when completed, may include activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags (Section 6.3.2.3), resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions. Activity attributes can be used to identify the person responsible for executing the work, geographic area, or place where the work has to be performed, the project calendar the activity is assigned to, and activity type such as level of effort (often abbreviated as LOE), discrete effort, and apportioned effort. Activity attributes are used for schedule development and for selecting, ordering, and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports. The number of attributes varies by application area.
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Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
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Duration estimates

Duration estimates provide quantitative assessments of project durations, ideally expressed as a range, indicating the degree of risk, where a structured review of the documents may indicate that the current estimate is insufficient and poses a risk to the project. Duration estimates provide the starting point from which schedule variability is evaluated.
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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.
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Resource requirements

Resource requirements are the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.
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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
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Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.
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Schedule management plan

The schedule management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds.
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Risk management plan

The risk management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed. Key elements of the risk management plan that contribute to the Identify Risks process are the assignments of roles and responsibilities, provision for risk management activities in the budget and schedule, and categories of risk, which are sometimes expressed as a risk breakdown structure.
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
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Alternatives analysis

Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and make-rent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.
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Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
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Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
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Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.
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Cost management plan

The cost management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how the project costs will be planned, structured, and controlled. The cost management processes and their associated tools and techniques are documented in the cost management plan.
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Quality management plan

The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how the organization’s quality policies will be implemented. It describes how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project. The quality management plan may be formal or informal, detailed, or broadly framed. The style and detail of the quality management plan are determined by the requirements of the project. The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. The benefits of this review can include a sharper focus on the project’s value proposition and reductions in costs and in the frequency of schedule overruns that were caused by rework.
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Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.
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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.
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Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.
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Resource requirements

Resource requirements are the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.
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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
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Analogous estimating

Analogous estimating is a technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project. Analogous estimating uses parameters from a previous, similar project, such as duration, budget, size, weight, and complexity, as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future project. When estimating durations, this technique relies on the actual duration of previous, similar projects as the basis for estimating the duration of the current project. It is a gross value estimating approach sometimes adjusted for known differences in project complexity. Analogous duration estimating is frequently used to estimate project duration when there is limited amount of detailed information about the project.
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Parametric estimating

Parametric estimating is an estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters. Parametric estimating uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (e.g., square footage in construction) to calculate an estimate for activity parameters, such as cost, budget, and duration. Activity durations can be quantitatively determined by multiplying the quantity of work to be performed by labor hours per unit of work. This technique can produce higher levels of accuracy depending upon the sophistication and underlying data built into the model. Parametric time estimates can be applied to a total project or to segments of a project, in conjunction with other estimating methods.
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Bottom-up estimating

Bottom-up estimating is a method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the lower-level components of the WBS. When an activity cannot be estimated with a reasonable degree of confidence, the work within the activity is decomposed into more detail. The resource needs are estimated. These estimates are then aggregated into a total quantity for each of the activity’s resources. Activities may or may not have dependencies between them that can affect the application and use of resources. If there are dependencies, this pattern of resource usage is reflected and documented in the estimated requirements of the activity.
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Three-point estimating

The accuracy of single-point activity duration estimates may be improved by considering estimation uncertainty and risk. This concept originated with the program evaluation and review technique (PERT). PERT uses three estimates to define an approximate range for an activity’s duration. Duration estimates based on three points with an assumed distribution provide an expected duration and clarify the range of uncertainty around the expected duration.
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Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
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Alternatives analysis

Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and make-rent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.
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Reserve analysis

Duration estimates may include contingency reserves, sometimes referred to as time reserves or buffers, into the project schedule to account for schedule uncertainty. Contingency reserves are the estimated duration within the schedule baseline, which is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigation responses are developed. Contingency reserves are associated with the “known-unknowns,” which may be estimated to account for this unknown amount of rework. The contingency reserve may be a percentage of the estimated activity duration, a fixed number of work periods, or may be developed by using quantitative analysis methods such as Monte Carlo simulation. Contingency reserves may be separated from the individual activities and aggregated into buffers. As more precise information about the project becomes available, the contingency reserve may be used, reduced, or eliminated. Contingency should be clearly identified in schedule documentation. Estimates may also be produced for the amount of management reserve of time for the project. Management reserves are a specified amount of the project duration withheld for management control purposes and are reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project. Management reserves are intended to address the “unknown-unknowns” that can affect a project. Management reserve is not included in the schedule baseline, but it is part of the overall project duration requirements. Depending on contract terms, use of management reserves may require a change to the schedule baseline.
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Cost of quality

Cost of quality includes all costs incurred over the life of the product by investment in preventing non-conformance to requirements, appraising the product or service for conformance to requirements, and failing to meet requirements (rework). Failure costs are often categorized into internal (found by the project) and external (found by the customer). Failure costs are also called cost of poor quality.
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Project management information system

Project management information system provides a standard set of tools for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and performance. It also allows the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, and presentations. Graphical capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information.
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Decision making

Decision making techniques are used to select a course of action from different alternatives. There are two decision-making tools and techniques.
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Voting

Voting is a collective decision-making technique and an assessment process having multiple alternatives with an expected outcome in the form of future actions. These techniques can be used to generate, classify, and prioritize product requirements. Can include making decisions based on unanimity, majority, or plurality.
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Cost estimates

Cost estimates are quantitative assessments of the likely costs for resources required to complete the activity. They include the identification and consideration of costing alternatives to initiate and complete the project.
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Basis of estimates

The amount and type of additional details supporting the cost estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail, the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the cost estimate was derived.
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Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
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Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.
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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
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Cost management plan

The cost management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how the project costs will be planned, structured, and controlled. The cost management processes and their associated tools and techniques are documented in the cost management plan.
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Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.
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Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.
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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
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Basis of estimates

The amount and type of additional details supporting the cost estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail, the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the cost estimate was derived.
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Cost estimates

Cost estimates are quantitative assessments of the likely costs for resources required to complete the activity. They include the identification and consideration of costing alternatives to initiate and complete the project.
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Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.
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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
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Business documents

Business documents (business case and benefits management plan) are two key documents that are interdependent and initially developed prior to the project. The project manager is responsible for maintaining and iteratively updating business documents throughout the project.
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Business case

The business case or similar document describes the necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether or not the project is worth the required investment. It is commonly used for decision making by managers or executives above the project level. Typically, the business need and the cost-benefit analysis are contained in the business case to justify and establish boundaries for the project, and such analysis is usually completed by a business analyst using various stakeholder inputs. The sponsor should agree to the scope and limitations of the business case.
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Benefits management plan

The benefits management plan is the documented explanation defining the processes for creating, maximizing, and sustaining the benefits provided by a project.
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Agreements

A procurement agreement includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies regarding what the seller is to perform or provide. It is the project management team’s responsibility to make certain that all agreements meet the specific needs of the project while adhering to organizational procurement policies. Depending upon the application area, an agreement can also be called an understanding, a contract, a subcontract, or a purchase order. Regardless of the document’s complexity, a contract is a mutually binding legal agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified products, services, or results, and obligates the buyer to compensate the seller. A contract is a legal relationship subject to remedy in the courts.
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
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Cost aggregation

Cost estimates are aggregated by work packages in accordance with the WBS. The work package cost estimates are then aggregated for the higher component levels of the WBS (such as control accounts) and ultimately for the entire project.
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Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
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Reserve analysis

Duration estimates may include contingency reserves, sometimes referred to as time reserves or buffers, into the project schedule to account for schedule uncertainty. Contingency reserves are the estimated duration within the schedule baseline, which is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigation responses are developed. Contingency reserves are associated with the “known-unknowns,” which may be estimated to account for this unknown amount of rework. The contingency reserve may be a percentage of the estimated activity duration, a fixed number of work periods, or may be developed by using quantitative analysis methods such as Monte Carlo simulation. Contingency reserves may be separated from the individual activities and aggregated into buffers. As more precise information about the project becomes available, the contingency reserve may be used, reduced, or eliminated. Contingency should be clearly identified in schedule documentation. Estimates may also be produced for the amount of management reserve of time for the project. Management reserves are a specified amount of the project duration withheld for management control purposes and are reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project. Management reserves are intended to address the “unknown-unknowns” that can affect a project. Management reserve is not included in the schedule baseline, but it is part of the overall project duration requirements. Depending on contract terms, use of management reserves may require a change to the schedule baseline.
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Historical information review

Reviewing historical information can assist in developing parametric estimates or analogous estimates. Historical information may include project characteristics (parameters) to develop mathematical models to predict total project costs.
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Funding limit reconciliation

The expenditure of funds should be reconciled with any funding limits on the commitment of funds for the project. A variance between the funding limits and the planned expenditures will sometimes necessitate the rescheduling of work to level out the rate of expenditures. This is accomplished by placing imposed date constraints for work into the project schedule.
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Financing

Financing entails aquiring funding for projects. It is common for long-term infrastructure, industrial, and public services projects to seek external sources of funds. If a project is funded externally, the funding entity may have certain requirements that are required to be met.
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Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.
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Project funding requirements

Total funding requirements and periodic funding requirements (e.g., quarterly, annually) are derived from the cost baseline. The cost baseline will include projected expenditures plus anticipated liabilities. Funding often occurs in incremental amounts that are not continuous. The total funds required are those included in the cost baseline, plus management reserves, if any.
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Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
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Cost estimates

Cost estimates are quantitative assessments of the likely costs for resources required to complete the activity. They include the identification and consideration of costing alternatives to initiate and complete the project.
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Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.
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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
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Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

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Milestone list

A milestone is a significant point or event in a project. A milestone list is a list identifying all project milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory, such as those required by contract, or optional, such as those based upon historical information. Milestones are similar to regular schedule activities, with the same structure and attributes, but they have zero duration because milestones represent a moment in time.

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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

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Change log

A change log is used to document changes that occur during a project. These changes and their impact to the project in terms of time, cost, and risk, are communicated to the appropriate stakeholders. Rejected change requests are also captured in the change log.

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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

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Project communications

The Manage Communications process involves the activities that are required for information to be created, distributed, received, acknowledged, and understood. Project communications may include but are not limited to: performance reports, deliverables status, schedule progress, and cost incurred. Project communications can vary significantly and are influenced by factors such as, but not limited to, the urgency and impact of the message, its method of delivery, and level of confidentiality.

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Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.

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Requirements traceability matrix

The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them. The implementation of a requirements traceability matrix helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives. It provides a means to track requirements throughout the project life cycle, helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. Finally, it provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.

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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

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Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

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Risk report

The risk report presents information on sources of overall project risk, together with summary information on identified individual project risks. The risk report is developed progressively throughout all of the Project Risk Management processes.

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Approved change requests

Approved change requests can include modifications to the terms and conditions of the contract, including the procurement statement of work, pricing, and descriptions of the products, services, or results to be provided. All procurement-related changes are formally documented in writing and approved before being implemented through the Control Procurements process.

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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.

Q

Organizational process assets updates

The organizational process assets that may be updated include, but are not limited to, report formats and lessons learned documentation. This documentation may become part of the historical database for both this project and the performing organization and may include the causes of issues, reasons behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned during the project.

Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.

Q

Project management information system

Project management information system provides a standard set of tools for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and performance. It also allows the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, and presentations. Graphical capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information.

Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.

Q

Deliverables

A deliverable is any unique and verifiable product, result or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process, phase, or project. Deliverables are typically tangible components completed to meet the project objectives and can include elements of the project management plan.

Q

Work performance data

Work performance data are the raw observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of detail from which information is derived by other processes. Data are gathered through work execution and passed to the controlling processes for further analysis.

Q

Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

Q

Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

Q

Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

Q

Activity list

The activity list is a comprehensive list that includes all schedule activities required on the project. The activity list also includes the activity identifier and a scope of work description for each activity in sufficient detail to ensure that project team members understand what work is required to be completed. Each activity should have a unique title that describes its place in the schedule, even if that activity title is displayed outside the context of the project schedule.

Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.

Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

Q

Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.

Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

Q
Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Project team assignments

The project is staffed when appropriate people have been assigned to the team. The documentation of these assignments can include a project team directory, memos to team members, and names inserted into other parts of the project management plan, such as project organization charts and schedules.

Q

Resource breakdown structure

The resource breakdown structure is a hierarchical representation of resources by category and type. Examples of resource categories include labor, material, equipment, and supplies. Resource types may include the skill level, grade level, or other information as appropriate to the project. The resource breakdown structure is useful for organizing and reporting project schedule data with resource utilization information.

Q

Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.

Q

Deliverables

A deliverable is any unique and verifiable product, result or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process, phase, or project. Deliverables are typically tangible components completed to meet the project objectives and can include elements of the project management plan.

Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.

Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.

Q

Knowledge management

The increasingly mobile and transitory work force requires a more rigorous process of identifying knowledge throughout the project life cycle and transferring it to the target audience so that the knowledge is not lost. How will knowledge be managed in the project to foster a collaborative working environment?

Q

Information management

Information management are tools and techniques that are used to create and connect people to information. They are effective for sharing simple, unambiguous, codified explicit knowledge. They include but are not limited to: methods for codifying explicit knowledge, lessons learned register, library services, information gathering, and project management information system (PMIS).

Q

Interpersonal and team skills

Interpersonal and team skills are skills used to effectively lead and interact with team members and other stakeholders.

Q

Active listening

Active listening helps reduce misunderstandings and improves communication and knowledge sharing. Listening actively involves acknowledging, clarifying and confirming, understanding, and removing barriers that adversely affect comprehension.

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Facilitation

Facilitation is the ability to effectively guide a group event to a successful decision, solution or conclusion. A good facilitator ensures effective participation and inclusion.

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Leadership

Leadership is the knowledge, skills, and behaviors needed to guide, motivate, and direct a team, to help an organization achieve its business goals.

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Networking

Networking is the formal and informal interaction with others in an organization, industry, or professional environment. It is a constructive way to understand political and interpersonal factors that will impact the effectiveness of various staffing management options. Human resource management benefits from successful networking by improving knowledge of and access to human resource assets such as strong competencies, specialized experience, and external partnership opportunities. Examples of human resources networking activities include proactive correspondence, luncheon meetings, informal conversations including meetings and events, trade conferences, and symposium. Networking can be a useful technique at the beginning of a project. It can also be an effective way to enhance project management professional development during the project and after the project ends.

Q

Political awareness

Political awareness helps the project manager to plan communications based on the project environment as well as the organization’s political environment. It concerns the recognition of power relationships, both formal and informal, and also the willingness to operate within these structures. Political awareness assists the project manager in engaging stakeholders appropriately to maintain their support throughout the project.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

Q

Organizational process assets updates

The organizational process assets that may be updated include, but are not limited to, report formats and lessons learned documentation. This documentation may become part of the historical database for both this project and the performing organization and may include the causes of issues, reasons behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned during the project.

Q
Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.

Q

Cost forecasts

Cost forecasts are either a calculated EAC value or a bottom-up EAC value is documented and communicated to stakeholders.

Q

Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.

Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.

Q

Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.

Q

Alternatives analysis

Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and make-rent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.

Q

Cost-benefit analysis

The primary benefits of meeting quality requirements include less rework, higher productivity, lower costs, increased stakeholder satisfaction, and increased profitability. A cost-benefit analysis for each quality activity compares the cost of the quality step to the expected benefit.

Q

Earned value analysis

Earned value analysis provides an integrated perspective on scope, schedule, and cost performance. The performance measurement baseline is compared to actual results to determine if a change, corrective action, or preventive action is necessary. Schedule performance measurements such as schedule variance (SV) and schedule performance index (SPI) are used to assess the magnitude of variation to the original schedule baseline.

Q

Root cause analysis

Root cause analysis is an analytical technique used to determine the basic underlying reason that causes a variance, defect, or risk. A root cause may underlie more than one variance, defect, or risk.

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Trend analysis

Trend analysis is an analytical technique that uses mathematical models to forecast future outcomes based on historical results.

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Variance analysis

Variance analysis is a technique for determining the cause and degree of difference between the baseline and actual performance. Project performance measurements are used to assess the magnitude of variation from the original scope baseline. Important aspects of project scope control include determining the cause and degree of variance relative to the scope baseline and deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required.

Q

Decision making

Decision making techniques are used to select a course of action from different alternatives. There are two decision-making tools and techniques.

Q

Voting

Voting is a collective decision-making technique and an assessment process having multiple alternatives with an expected outcome in the form of future actions. These techniques can be used to generate, classify, and prioritize product requirements. Can include making decisions based on unanimity, majority, or plurality.

Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.

Q

Work performance reports

Work performance reports are the physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents, intended to generate decisions, actions, or awareness. Project information may be communicated verbally from person to person. However, in order to record, store, and sometimes distribute work performance information, a physical or electronic representation in the form of project documents is required. Work performance reports are a subset of project documents, which are intended to create awareness and generate decisions or actions. Specific work performance metrics may be defined at the start of the project and included in the normal work performance reports provided to key stakeholders.

Q

Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

Q

Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

Q
Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

Q

Change management plan

The change management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the change control board, documents the extent of it’s authority, and describes how the change control system will be implemented.

Q

Configuration management plan

The configuration management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how to identify and account for project artifacts under configuration control, and how to record and report changes to them.

Q

Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.

Q

Schedule baseline

A schedule baseline is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is accepted and approved by the appropriate stakeholders as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. During monitoring and controlling, the approved baseline dates are compared to the actual start and finish dates to determine whether variances have occurred. The schedule baseline is a component of the project management plan.

Q

Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.

Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.

Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.

Q

Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.

Q

Alternatives analysis

Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and make-rent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.

Q

Cost-benefit analysis

The primary benefits of meeting quality requirements include less rework, higher productivity, lower costs, increased stakeholder satisfaction, and increased profitability. A cost-benefit analysis for each quality activity compares the cost of the quality step to the expected benefit.

Q

Basis of estimates

The amount and type of additional details supporting the cost estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail, the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the cost estimate was derived.

Q

Risk report

The risk report presents information on sources of overall project risk, together with summary information on identified individual project risks. The risk report is developed progressively throughout all of the Project Risk Management processes.

Q

Work performance reports

Work performance reports are the physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents, intended to generate decisions, actions, or awareness. Project information may be communicated verbally from person to person. However, in order to record, store, and sometimes distribute work performance information, a physical or electronic representation in the form of project documents is required. Work performance reports are a subset of project documents, which are intended to create awareness and generate decisions or actions. Specific work performance metrics may be defined at the start of the project and included in the normal work performance reports provided to key stakeholders.

Q

Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

Q

Decision making

Decision making techniques are used to select a course of action from different alternatives. There are two decision-making tools and techniques.

Q

Voting

Voting is a collective decision-making technique and an assessment process having multiple alternatives with an expected outcome in the form of future actions. These techniques can be used to generate, classify, and prioritize product requirements. Can include making decisions based on unanimity, majority, or plurality.

Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.

Q

Autocratic decision making

In this decision-making technique, one individual takes the responsibility for making the decision for the entire group.

Q

Approved change requests

Approved change requests can include modifications to the terms and conditions of the contract, including the procurement statement of work, pricing, and descriptions of the products, services, or results to be provided. All procurement-related changes are formally documented in writing and approved before being implemented through the Control Procurements process.

Q

Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

Q

Change log

A change log is used to document changes that occur during a project. These changes and their impact to the project in terms of time, cost, and risk, are communicated to the appropriate stakeholders. Rejected change requests are also captured in the change log.

Q
Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

Q

Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.

Q

Scope management plan

The scope management plan is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified. The scope management plan is a major input into the Develop Project Management Plan process, and the other scope management processes.

Q

Requirements management plan

The requirements management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed. The project manager chooses the most effective relationship for the project and documents this approach in the requirements management plan. Many of the requirements management plan components are based on that relationship.

Q

Quality reports

Quality reports are project documents that include quality management issues, recommendations for corrective actions, and a summary of findings from quality control activities. Quality reports may include recommendations for process, project, and product improvements.

Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

Q

Verified deliverables

A goal of the Control Quality process is to determine the correctness of deliverables. The results of performing the Control Quality process are verified deliverables. Verified deliverables are an input to Validate Scope for formalized acceptance.

Q

Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.

Q

Requirements traceability matrix

The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them. The implementation of a requirements traceability matrix helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives. It provides a means to track requirements throughout the project life cycle, helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. Finally, it provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.

Q

Decision making

Decision making techniques are used to select a course of action from different alternatives. There are two decision-making tools and techniques.

Q

Voting

Voting is a collective decision-making technique and an assessment process having multiple alternatives with an expected outcome in the form of future actions. These techniques can be used to generate, classify, and prioritize product requirements. Can include making decisions based on unanimity, majority, or plurality.

Q

Inspection

Inspection includes activities such as measuring, examining, and validating to determine whether work and deliverables meet requirements and product acceptance criteria. Inspections are sometimes called reviews, product reviews, audits, and walk-throughs. In some application areas, these different terms have unique and specific meanings.

Q

Accepted deliverables

Deliverables that meet the acceptance criteria are formally signed off and approved by the customer or sponsor. Formal documentation received from the customer or sponsor acknowledging formal stakeholder acceptance of the project’s deliverables is forwarded to the Close Project or Phase process.

Q

Work performance information

Work performance information is the performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context, and integrated based on relationships across areas. Thus work performance data has been transformed into work performance information. Data in itself cannot be used in the decision-making process as it has only out-of-context meaning. Work performance information, however, is correlated and contextualized, and provides a sound foundation for project decisions.

Q

Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

Q

Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.

Q

Scope management plan

The scope management plan is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified. The scope management plan is a major input into the Develop Project Management Plan process, and the other scope management processes.

Q

Requirements management plan

The requirements management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed. The project manager chooses the most effective relationship for the project and documents this approach in the requirements management plan. Many of the requirements management plan components are based on that relationship.

Q

Change management plan

The change management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the change control board, documents the extent of it’s authority, and describes how the change control system will be implemented.

Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

Q

Configuration management plan

The configuration management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how to identify and account for project artifacts under configuration control, and how to record and report changes to them.

Q

Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.

Q

Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.

Q

Requirements traceability matrix

The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them. The implementation of a requirements traceability matrix helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives. It provides a means to track requirements throughout the project life cycle, helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. Finally, it provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.

Q

Requirements traceability matrix

The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them. The implementation of a requirements traceability matrix helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives. It provides a means to track requirements throughout the project life cycle, helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. Finally, it provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.

Q

Performance measurement baseline

The performance measurement baseline (PMB) includes integrated scope, schedule, and cost baselines that are used for comparison to manage, measure, and control project execution.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Work performance data

Work performance data are the raw observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of detail from which information is derived by other processes. Data are gathered through work execution and passed to the controlling processes for further analysis.

Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

Q

Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.

Q

Variance analysis

Variance analysis is a technique for determining the cause and degree of difference between the baseline and actual performance. Project performance measurements are used to assess the magnitude of variation from the original scope baseline. Important aspects of project scope control include determining the cause and degree of variance relative to the scope baseline and deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required.

Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

Q

Trend analysis

Trend analysis is an analytical technique that uses mathematical models to forecast future outcomes based on historical results.

Q

Work performance information

Work performance information is the performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context, and integrated based on relationships across areas. Thus work performance data has been transformed into work performance information. Data in itself cannot be used in the decision-making process as it has only out-of-context meaning. Work performance information, however, is correlated and contextualized, and provides a sound foundation for project decisions.

Q

Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

Q

Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

Q

Scope management plan

The scope management plan is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified. The scope management plan is a major input into the Develop Project Management Plan process, and the other scope management processes.

Q

Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.

Q

Schedule baseline

A schedule baseline is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is accepted and approved by the appropriate stakeholders as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. During monitoring and controlling, the approved baseline dates are compared to the actual start and finish dates to determine whether variances have occurred. The schedule baseline is a component of the project management plan.

Q

Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.

Q

Performance measurement baseline

The performance measurement baseline (PMB) includes integrated scope, schedule, and cost baselines that are used for comparison to manage, measure, and control project execution.

Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.

Q

Requirements traceability matrix

The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them. The implementation of a requirements traceability matrix helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives. It provides a means to track requirements throughout the project life cycle, helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. Finally, it provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.

Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

Q

Schedule management plan

The schedule management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds.

Q

Schedule baseline

A schedule baseline is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is accepted and approved by the appropriate stakeholders as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. During monitoring and controlling, the approved baseline dates are compared to the actual start and finish dates to determine whether variances have occurred. The schedule baseline is a component of the project management plan.

Q

Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.

Q

Performance measurement baseline

The performance measurement baseline (PMB) includes integrated scope, schedule, and cost baselines that are used for comparison to manage, measure, and control project execution.

Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Project calendars

A project calendar identifies working days and shifts that are available for scheduled activities. It distinguishes time periods in days or parts of days that are available to complete scheduled activities from time periods that are not available. A schedule model may require more than one project calendar to allow for different work periods for some activities to calculate the project schedule. The project calendars may be updated.

Q

Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.

Q

Resource calendars

A resource calendar is a calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available. Information on which resources (such as human resources, equipment, and material) are potentially available during a planned activity period, is used for estimating resource utilization. Resource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be available during the project. This information may be at the activity or project level. This knowledge includes consideration of attributes such as resource experience and/or skill level, as well as various geographical locations from which the resources originate and when they may be available.

Q

Schedule data

The schedule data for the project schedule model is the collection of information for describing and controlling the schedule. The schedule data includes at least the schedule milestones, schedule activities, activity attributes, and documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints. The amount of additional data varies by application area.

Q

Work performance data

Work performance data are the raw observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of detail from which information is derived by other processes. Data are gathered through work execution and passed to the controlling processes for further analysis.

Q

Organizational process assets updates

The organizational process assets that may be updated include, but are not limited to, report formats and lessons learned documentation. This documentation may become part of the historical database for both this project and the performing organization and may include the causes of issues, reasons behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned during the project.

Q

Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.

Q

Earned value analysis

Earned value analysis provides an integrated perspective on scope, schedule, and cost performance. The performance measurement baseline is compared to actual results to determine if a change, corrective action, or preventive action is necessary. Schedule performance measurements such as schedule variance (SV) and schedule performance index (SPI) are used to assess the magnitude of variation to the original schedule baseline.

Q

Iteration burndown chart

This chart tracks the work that remains to be completed in the iteration backlog. It is used to analyze the variance with respect to an ideal burndown based on the work committed from iteration planning. A forecast trend line can be used to predict the likely variance at iteration completion and take appropriate actions during the course of the iteration. A diagonal line representing the ideal burndown and daily actual remaining work is then plotted. A trend line is then calculated to forecast completion based on remaining work.

Q

Performance reviews

Performance reviews measure, compare, and analyze schedule performance such as actual start and finish dates, percent complete, and remaining duration for work in progress. Performance reviews compare cost performance over time, schedule activities or work packages overrunning and under-running the budget, and estimated funds needed to complete work in progress.

Q

Trend analysis

Trend analysis is an analytical technique that uses mathematical models to forecast future outcomes based on historical results.

Q

Variance analysis

Variance analysis is a technique for determining the cause and degree of difference between the baseline and actual performance. Project performance measurements are used to assess the magnitude of variation from the original scope baseline. Important aspects of project scope control include determining the cause and degree of variance relative to the scope baseline and deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required.

Q

What-if scenario analysis

What-if scenario analysis is the process of evaluating scenarios in order to predict their effect on project objectives.

Q

Critical path method

The critical path method is a method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model. This schedule network analysis technique calculates the early start, early finish, late start, and late finish dates for all activities without regard for any resource limitations by performing a forward and backward pass analysis through the schedule network. The critical path is the sequence of activities that represents the longest path through a project, which determines the shortest possible project duration. The resulting early and late start and finish dates are not necessarily the project schedule, rather they indicate the time periods within which activity could be executed, using parameters entered in the schedule model for activity durations, logical relationships, leads, lags and other known constraints. The critical path method is used to calculate the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model.

Q

Project management information system

Project management information system provides a standard set of tools for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and performance. It also allows the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, and presentations. Graphical capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information.

Q

Resource optimization

Resource optimization techniques can be used to adjust the schedule model due to demand and supply of resources.

Q

Leads and lags

Leads and lags are refinements applied during network analysis to develop a viable schedule by adjusting the start time of the successor activities. Leads are used in limited circumstances to advance a successor activity with respect to the predecessor activity, and lags are used in limited circumstances where processes require a set period of time to elapse between the predecessors and successors without work or resource impact.

Q

Schedule compression

Schedule compression techniques are used to shorten the schedule duration without reducing the project scope, in order to meet schedule constraints, imposed dates, or other schedule objectives.

Q

Work performance information

Work performance information is the performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context, and integrated based on relationships across areas. Thus work performance data has been transformed into work performance information. Data in itself cannot be used in the decision-making process as it has only out-of-context meaning. Work performance information, however, is correlated and contextualized, and provides a sound foundation for project decisions.

Q

Schedule Forecasts

Schedule forecasts are estimates or predictions of conditions and events in the project’s future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast. Forecasts are updated and reissued based on work performance information provided as the project is executed. The information is based on the project’s past performance and expected future performance, and includes earned value performance indicators that could impact the project in the future.

Q

Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

Q

Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

Q

Schedule management plan

The schedule management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds.

Q

Schedule baseline

A schedule baseline is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is accepted and approved by the appropriate stakeholders as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. During monitoring and controlling, the approved baseline dates are compared to the actual start and finish dates to determine whether variances have occurred. The schedule baseline is a component of the project management plan.

Q

Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.

Q

Performance measurement baseline

The performance measurement baseline (PMB) includes integrated scope, schedule, and cost baselines that are used for comparison to manage, measure, and control project execution.

Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.

Q

Basis of estimates

The amount and type of additional details supporting the cost estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail, the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the cost estimate was derived.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.

Q

Resource calendars

A resource calendar is a calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available. Information on which resources (such as human resources, equipment, and material) are potentially available during a planned activity period, is used for estimating resource utilization. Resource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be available during the project. This information may be at the activity or project level. This knowledge includes consideration of attributes such as resource experience and/or skill level, as well as various geographical locations from which the resources originate and when they may be available.

Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

Q

Schedule data

The schedule data for the project schedule model is the collection of information for describing and controlling the schedule. The schedule data includes at least the schedule milestones, schedule activities, activity attributes, and documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints. The amount of additional data varies by application area.

Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

Q

Cost management plan

The cost management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how the project costs will be planned, structured, and controlled. The cost management processes and their associated tools and techniques are documented in the cost management plan.

Q

Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.

Q

Performance measurement baseline

The performance measurement baseline (PMB) includes integrated scope, schedule, and cost baselines that are used for comparison to manage, measure, and control project execution.

Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Project funding requirements

Total funding requirements and periodic funding requirements (e.g., quarterly, annually) are derived from the cost baseline. The cost baseline will include projected expenditures plus anticipated liabilities. Funding often occurs in incremental amounts that are not continuous. The total funds required are those included in the cost baseline, plus management reserves, if any.

Q

Work performance data

Work performance data are the raw observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of detail from which information is derived by other processes. Data are gathered through work execution and passed to the controlling processes for further analysis.

Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

Q

Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.

Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.

Q

Earned value analysis

Earned value analysis provides an integrated perspective on scope, schedule, and cost performance. The performance measurement baseline is compared to actual results to determine if a change, corrective action, or preventive action is necessary. Schedule performance measurements such as schedule variance (SV) and schedule performance index (SPI) are used to assess the magnitude of variation to the original schedule baseline.

Q

Variance analysis

Variance analysis is a technique for determining the cause and degree of difference between the baseline and actual performance. Project performance measurements are used to assess the magnitude of variation from the original scope baseline. Important aspects of project scope control include determining the cause and degree of variance relative to the scope baseline and deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required.

Q

Trend analysis

Trend analysis is an analytical technique that uses mathematical models to forecast future outcomes based on historical results.

Q

Reserve analysis

Duration estimates may include contingency reserves, sometimes referred to as time reserves or buffers, into the project schedule to account for schedule uncertainty. Contingency reserves are the estimated duration within the schedule baseline, which is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigation responses are developed. Contingency reserves are associated with the “known-unknowns,” which may be estimated to account for this unknown amount of rework. The contingency reserve may be a percentage of the estimated activity duration, a fixed number of work periods, or may be developed by using quantitative analysis methods such as Monte Carlo simulation. Contingency reserves may be separated from the individual activities and aggregated into buffers. As more precise information about the project becomes available, the contingency reserve may be used, reduced, or eliminated. Contingency should be clearly identified in schedule documentation. Estimates may also be produced for the amount of management reserve of time for the project. Management reserves are a specified amount of the project duration withheld for management control purposes and are reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project. Management reserves are intended to address the “unknown-unknowns” that can affect a project. Management reserve is not included in the schedule baseline, but it is part of the overall project duration requirements. Depending on contract terms, use of management reserves may require a change to the schedule baseline.

Q

To-complete performance index

The to-complete performance index (TCPI) is a measure of the cost performance that is required to be achieved with the remaining resources in order to meet a specified management goal, expressed as the ratio of the cost to finish the outstanding work to the remaining budget. TCPI is the calculated cost performance index that is achieved on the remaining work to meet a specified management goal, such as the BAC or the EAC. If it becomes obvious that the BAC is no longer viable, the project manager should consider the forecasted EAC. Once approved, the EAC may replace the BAC in the TCPI calculation. The equation for the TCPI based on the BAC: (BAC – EV) / (BAC – AC).

Q

Project management information system

Project management information system provides a standard set of tools for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and performance. It also allows the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, and presentations. Graphical capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information.

Q

Work performance information

Work performance information is the performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context, and integrated based on relationships across areas. Thus work performance data has been transformed into work performance information. Data in itself cannot be used in the decision-making process as it has only out-of-context meaning. Work performance information, however, is correlated and contextualized, and provides a sound foundation for project decisions.

Q

Cost forecasts

Cost forecasts are either a calculated EAC value or a bottom-up EAC value is documented and communicated to stakeholders.

Q

Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

Q

Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.

Q

Cost management plan

The cost management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how the project costs will be planned, structured, and controlled. The cost management processes and their associated tools and techniques are documented in the cost management plan.

Q

Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.

Q

Performance measurement baseline

The performance measurement baseline (PMB) includes integrated scope, schedule, and cost baselines that are used for comparison to manage, measure, and control project execution.

Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.

Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.

Q

Basis of estimates

The amount and type of additional details supporting the cost estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail, the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the cost estimate was derived.

Q

Cost estimates

Cost estimates are quantitative assessments of the likely costs for resources required to complete the activity. They include the identification and consideration of costing alternatives to initiate and complete the project.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

Q
Q

Project charter

The project charter is the document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. It documents the business needs, assumptions, constraints, the understanding of the customer’s needs and high-level requirements, and the new product, service, or result that it is intended to satisfy.

Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.

Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.

Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.

Q

Basis of estimates

The amount and type of additional details supporting the cost estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail, the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the cost estimate was derived.

Q

Change log

A change log is used to document changes that occur during a project. These changes and their impact to the project in terms of time, cost, and risk, are communicated to the appropriate stakeholders. Rejected change requests are also captured in the change log.

Q

Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.

Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.

Q

Milestone list

A milestone is a significant point or event in a project. A milestone list is a list identifying all project milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory, such as those required by contract, or optional, such as those based upon historical information. Milestones are similar to regular schedule activities, with the same structure and attributes, but they have zero duration because milestones represent a moment in time.

Q

Project communications

The Manage Communications process involves the activities that are required for information to be created, distributed, received, acknowledged, and understood. Project communications may include but are not limited to: performance reports, deliverables status, schedule progress, and cost incurred. Project communications can vary significantly and are influenced by factors such as, but not limited to, the urgency and impact of the message, its method of delivery, and level of confidentiality.

Q

Quality control measurements

Quality control measurements are the results of control quality activities. They are used to analyze and evaluate the quality of the processes of the project against the standards of the performing organization or the requirements specified. Quality control measurements can also compare the processes used to create the measurements, and validate actual measurements to determine their level of correctness.

Q

Quality reports

Quality reports are project documents that include quality management issues, recommendations for corrective actions, and a summary of findings from quality control activities. Quality reports may include recommendations for process, project, and product improvements.

Q

Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.

Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.

Q

Risk report

The risk report presents information on sources of overall project risk, together with summary information on identified individual project risks. The risk report is developed progressively throughout all of the Project Risk Management processes.

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Accepted deliverables

Deliverables that meet the acceptance criteria are formally signed off and approved by the customer or sponsor. Formal documentation received from the customer or sponsor acknowledging formal stakeholder acceptance of the project’s deliverables is forwarded to the Close Project or Phase process.

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Business documents

Business documents (business case and benefits management plan) are two key documents that are interdependent and initially developed prior to the project. The project manager is responsible for maintaining and iteratively updating business documents throughout the project.

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Business case

The business case or similar document describes the necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether or not the project is worth the required investment. It is commonly used for decision making by managers or executives above the project level. Typically, the business need and the cost-benefit analysis are contained in the business case to justify and establish boundaries for the project, and such analysis is usually completed by a business analyst using various stakeholder inputs. The sponsor should agree to the scope and limitations of the business case.

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Benefits management plan

The benefits management plan is the documented explanation defining the processes for creating, maximizing, and sustaining the benefits provided by a project.

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Agreements

A procurement agreement includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies regarding what the seller is to perform or provide. It is the project management team’s responsibility to make certain that all agreements meet the specific needs of the project while adhering to organizational procurement policies. Depending upon the application area, an agreement can also be called an understanding, a contract, a subcontract, or a purchase order. Regardless of the document’s complexity, a contract is a mutually binding legal agreement that obligates the seller to provid