4.1
Q

4.1 Develop Project Charter

Develop Project Charter is the process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
Q
Q

Business documents

Business documents (business case and benefits management plan) are two key documents that are interdependent and initially developed prior to the project. The project manager is responsible for maintaining and iteratively updating business documents throughout the project.
Q

Business case

The business case or similar document describes the necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether or not the project is worth the required investment. It is commonly used for decision making by managers or executives above the project level. Typically, the business need and the cost-benefit analysis are contained in the business case to justify and establish boundaries for the project, and such analysis is usually completed by a business analyst using various stakeholder inputs. The sponsor should agree to the scope and limitations of the business case.
Q

Agreements

A procurement agreement includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies regarding what the seller is to perform or provide. It is the project management team’s responsibility to make certain that all agreements meet the specific needs of the project while adhering to organizational procurement policies. Depending upon the application area, an agreement can also be called an understanding, a contract, a subcontract, or a purchase order. Regardless of the document’s complexity, a contract is a mutually binding legal agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified products, services, or results, and obligates the buyer to compensate the seller. A contract is a legal relationship subject to remedy in the courts.
Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
Q

Data gathering

Data gathering is a technique used to collect data and information from various sources for the purposes of later analyzing the data and assessing information.
Q

Brainstorming

Brainstorming is a common data-gathering technique that derives input from individuals and groups usually perceived as subject matter experts.
Q

Focus groups

Focus groups bring together qualified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product, service, or result. A trained moderator guides the group through an interactive discussion, designed to be more conversational than a one-on-one interview.
Q

Interviews

An interview is a formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly. It is typically performed by asking prepared and spontaneous questions and recording the responses. Interviews are often conducted on an individual basis between an interviewer and an interviewee, but may involve multiple interviewers and/or multiple interviewees. Interviewing experienced project participants, sponsors and other executives, and subject matter experts can aid in identifying and defining the features and functions of the desired product deliverables. Interviews are also useful for obtaining confidential information.
Q

Interpersonal and team skills

Interpersonal and team skills are skills used to effectively lead and interact with team members and other stakeholders.
Q

Conflict management

Sources of conflict include scarce resources, scheduling priorities, and personal work styles. Team ground rules, group norms, and solid project management practices, like communication planning and role definition, reduce the amount of conflict. Successful conflict management results in greater productivity and positive working relationships. When managed properly, differences of opinion can lead to increased creativity and better decision making. If the differences become a negative factor, project team members are initially responsible for their resolution. If conflict escalates, the project manager should help facilitate a satisfactory resolution. Conflict should be addressed early and usually in private, using a direct, collaborative approach. If disruptive conflict continues, formal procedures may be used, including disciplinary actions.
Q

Facilitation

Facilitation is the ability to effectively guide a group event to a successful decision, solution or conclusion. A good facilitator ensures effective participation and inclusion.
Q

Meeting management

Meeting management is the process of ensuring meetings achieve their intended objectives. Good meeting management does this effectively and efficiently through proper preparation, setting and managing expectations, keeping good records and ensuring participant promptness and participation.
Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
13.1
Q

13.1 Identify Stakeholders

Identify Stakeholders is the process of identifying the people, groups, or organizations that could impact or be impacted by a decision, activity, or outcome of the project, analyzing and documenting relevant information regarding their interests, involvement, interdependencies, influence, and potential impact on project success. The key benefit of this process is that it allows the project manager to identify the appropriate focus for each stakeholder or group of stakeholders.
Q
Q

Business case

The business case or similar document describes the necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether or not the project is worth the required investment. It is commonly used for decision making by managers or executives above the project level. Typically, the business need and the cost-benefit analysis are contained in the business case to justify and establish boundaries for the project, and such analysis is usually completed by a business analyst using various stakeholder inputs. The sponsor should agree to the scope and limitations of the business case.
Q

Business documents

Business documents (business case and benefits management plan) are two key documents that are interdependent and initially developed prior to the project. The project manager is responsible for maintaining and iteratively updating business documents throughout the project.
Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
Q

Agreements

A procurement agreement includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies regarding what the seller is to perform or provide. It is the project management team’s responsibility to make certain that all agreements meet the specific needs of the project while adhering to organizational procurement policies. Depending upon the application area, an agreement can also be called an understanding, a contract, a subcontract, or a purchase order. Regardless of the document’s complexity, a contract is a mutually binding legal agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified products, services, or results, and obligates the buyer to compensate the seller. A contract is a legal relationship subject to remedy in the courts.
Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
Q

Data gathering

Data gathering is a technique used to collect data and information from various sources for the purposes of later analyzing the data and assessing information.
Q

Brainstorming

Brainstorming is a common data-gathering technique that derives input from individuals and groups usually perceived as subject matter experts.
Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
Q

Benefits management plan

The benefits management plan is the documented explanation defining the processes for creating, maximizing, and sustaining the benefits provided by a project.
Q
Q

Communications management plan

The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.
Q

Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.
Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
Q

Change log

A change log is used to document changes that occur during a project. These changes and their impact to the project in terms of time, cost, and risk, are communicated to the appropriate stakeholders. Rejected change requests are also captured in the change log.
Q

Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.
Q

Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.
Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
Q

Questionnaires and surveys

Questionnaires and surveys are written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a large number of respondents. Questionnaires and/or surveys are most appropriate with varied audiences, when a quick turnaround is needed, when respondents are geographically dispersed, and where statistical analysis is appropriate.
Q

Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
Q

Stakeholder analysis

Stakeholder analysis is a technique of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative and qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken into account throughout the project. It identifies the interests, expectations, and influence of the stakeholders and relates them to the purpose of the project. It also helps to identify stakeholder relationships (with the project and other stakeholders) that can be leveraged to build coalitions and potential partnerships to enhance the project's chance of success, along with stakeholder relationships that need to be influenced differently at different stages of the project or phase.
Q

Document analysis

Document analysis is used to elicit requirements by analyzing existing documentation and identifying relevant requirements. Examples of documents that may be analyzed include, but are not limited to: business plans, marketing literature, agreements, requests for proposal, current process flows, logical data models, business rules repositories, application software documentation, business process or interface documentation, use cases, other requirements documentation, problem/issue logs, policies, procedures, and regulatory documentation such as laws, codes, or ordinances, etc.
Q

Data representation

Data representation is used to show graphic representations or other methods used to convey data and information. There are 15 data representation tools and techniques.
Q

Stakeholder mapping and representation

Stakeholder mapping and representation is a method of categorizing stakeholders using various methods. Categorizing stakeholders assists the team in building relationships with the identified project stakeholders.
Q

Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.
Q

Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.
Q

Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.
Q

Requirements management plan

The requirements management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed. The project manager chooses the most effective relationship for the project and documents this approach in the requirements management plan. Many of the requirements management plan components are based on that relationship.
Q

Communications management plan

The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.
Q

Risk management plan

The risk management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed. Key elements of the risk management plan that contribute to the Identify Risks process are the assignments of roles and responsibilities, provision for risk management activities in the budget and schedule, and categories of risk, which are sometimes expressed as a risk breakdown structure.
Q

Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.
Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
Q

Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.
Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
4.2
Q

4.2 Develop Project Management Plan

Develop Project Management Plan is the process of defining, preparing, and coordinating all subsidiary plans and integrating them into a comprehensive project management plan. The key benefit of this process is a central document that defines the basis of all project work.
Q
Q

Outputs from other processes

Outputs from other processes are exactly as stated, simply outputs from other processes.
Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
Q

Data gathering

Data gathering is a technique used to collect data and information from various sources for the purposes of later analyzing the data and assessing information.
Q

Brainstorming

Brainstorming is a common data-gathering technique that derives input from individuals and groups usually perceived as subject matter experts.
Q

Checklists

A checklist is a list of items, actions, or points to be considered. It is often used as a reminder.
Q

Focus groups

Focus groups bring together qualified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product, service, or result. A trained moderator guides the group through an interactive discussion, designed to be more conversational than a one-on-one interview.
Q

Interviews

An interview is a formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly. It is typically performed by asking prepared and spontaneous questions and recording the responses. Interviews are often conducted on an individual basis between an interviewer and an interviewee, but may involve multiple interviewers and/or multiple interviewees. Interviewing experienced project participants, sponsors and other executives, and subject matter experts can aid in identifying and defining the features and functions of the desired product deliverables. Interviews are also useful for obtaining confidential information.
Q

Interpersonal and team skills

Interpersonal and team skills are skills used to effectively lead and interact with team members and other stakeholders.
Q

Conflict management

Sources of conflict include scarce resources, scheduling priorities, and personal work styles. Team ground rules, group norms, and solid project management practices, like communication planning and role definition, reduce the amount of conflict. Successful conflict management results in greater productivity and positive working relationships. When managed properly, differences of opinion can lead to increased creativity and better decision making. If the differences become a negative factor, project team members are initially responsible for their resolution. If conflict escalates, the project manager should help facilitate a satisfactory resolution. Conflict should be addressed early and usually in private, using a direct, collaborative approach. If disruptive conflict continues, formal procedures may be used, including disciplinary actions.
Q

Facilitation

Facilitation is the ability to effectively guide a group event to a successful decision, solution or conclusion. A good facilitator ensures effective participation and inclusion.
Q

Meeting management

Meeting management is the process of ensuring meetings achieve their intended objectives. Good meeting management does this effectively and efficiently through proper preparation, setting and managing expectations, keeping good records and ensuring participant promptness and participation.
Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
Q
5.1
Q
Q
Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
Q

Quality management plan

The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how the organization’s quality policies will be implemented. It describes how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project. The quality management plan may be formal or informal, detailed, or broadly framed. The style and detail of the quality management plan are determined by the requirements of the project. The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. The benefits of this review can include a sharper focus on the project’s value proposition and reductions in costs and in the frequency of schedule overruns that were caused by rework.
Q

Project life cycle description

The project life cycle determines the series of phases that a project passes through from its inception to the end of the project.
Q

Development approach

Development approach is the method used to create and evolve the product, service, or result during the project life cycle, such as predictive, iterative, incremental, agile, or a hybrid method.
Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
Q
Q

Alternatives analysis

Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and make-rent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.
Q

Scope management plan

The scope management plan is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified. The scope management plan is a major input into the Develop Project Management Plan process, and the other scope management processes.
5.2
Q
Q

Scope management plan

The scope management plan is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified. The scope management plan is a major input into the Develop Project Management Plan process, and the other scope management processes.
Q

Business case

The business case or similar document describes the necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether or not the project is worth the required investment. It is commonly used for decision making by managers or executives above the project level. Typically, the business need and the cost-benefit analysis are contained in the business case to justify and establish boundaries for the project, and such analysis is usually completed by a business analyst using various stakeholder inputs. The sponsor should agree to the scope and limitations of the business case.
Q

Business documents

Business documents (business case and benefits management plan) are two key documents that are interdependent and initially developed prior to the project. The project manager is responsible for maintaining and iteratively updating business documents throughout the project.
Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
Q

Agreements

A procurement agreement includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies regarding what the seller is to perform or provide. It is the project management team’s responsibility to make certain that all agreements meet the specific needs of the project while adhering to organizational procurement policies. Depending upon the application area, an agreement can also be called an understanding, a contract, a subcontract, or a purchase order. Regardless of the document’s complexity, a contract is a mutually binding legal agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified products, services, or results, and obligates the buyer to compensate the seller. A contract is a legal relationship subject to remedy in the courts.
Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
Q

Data gathering

Data gathering is a technique used to collect data and information from various sources for the purposes of later analyzing the data and assessing information.
Q

Brainstorming

Brainstorming is a common data-gathering technique that derives input from individuals and groups usually perceived as subject matter experts.
Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
Q
Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
Q

Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.
Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
Q

Questionnaires and surveys

Questionnaires and surveys are written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a large number of respondents. Questionnaires and/or surveys are most appropriate with varied audiences, when a quick turnaround is needed, when respondents are geographically dispersed, and where statistical analysis is appropriate.
Q

Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
Q

Document analysis

Document analysis is used to elicit requirements by analyzing existing documentation and identifying relevant requirements. Examples of documents that may be analyzed include, but are not limited to: business plans, marketing literature, agreements, requests for proposal, current process flows, logical data models, business rules repositories, application software documentation, business process or interface documentation, use cases, other requirements documentation, problem/issue logs, policies, procedures, and regulatory documentation such as laws, codes, or ordinances, etc.
Q

Data representation

Data representation is used to show graphic representations or other methods used to convey data and information. There are 15 data representation tools and techniques.
Q

Requirements management plan

The requirements management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed. The project manager chooses the most effective relationship for the project and documents this approach in the requirements management plan. Many of the requirements management plan components are based on that relationship.
Q

Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.
Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.
Q

Interviews

An interview is a formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly. It is typically performed by asking prepared and spontaneous questions and recording the responses. Interviews are often conducted on an individual basis between an interviewer and an interviewee, but may involve multiple interviewers and/or multiple interviewees. Interviewing experienced project participants, sponsors and other executives, and subject matter experts can aid in identifying and defining the features and functions of the desired product deliverables. Interviews are also useful for obtaining confidential information.
Q

Focus groups

Focus groups bring together qualified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product, service, or result. A trained moderator guides the group through an interactive discussion, designed to be more conversational than a one-on-one interview.
Q

Benchmarking

Benchmarking involves comparing actual or planned practices, such as processes and operations, to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance. The organizations compared during benchmarking can be internal or external.
Q

Decision making

Decision making techniques are used to select a course of action from different alternatives. There are two decision-making tools and techniques.
Q

Voting

Voting is a collective decision-making technique and an assessment process having multiple alternatives with an expected outcome in the form of future actions. These techniques can be used to generate, classify, and prioritize product requirements. Can include making decisions based on unanimity, majority, or plurality.
Q

Multicriteria decision analysis

Selection criteria are often used as a part of acquiring the project team. By use of a multicriteria decision analysis tool, criteria are developed and used to rate or score potential team members. The criteria are weighted according to the relative importance of the needs within the team.
Q

Autocratic decision making

In this decision-making technique, one individual takes the responsibility for making the decision for the entire group.
Q

Affinity diagrams

Affinity diagrams allow large numbers of ideas to be classified into groups for review and analysis.
Q

Mind mapping

Mind mapping is a technique used to consolidate ideas created through individual brainstorming sessions into a single map to reflect commonality and differences in understanding and to generate new ideas.
Q

Nominal group technique

Nominal group technique enhances brainstorming with a voting process used to rank the most useful ideas for further brainstorming or for prioritization.
Q

Observation and conversation

Observation and conversation are used to stay in touch with the work and attitudes of project team members. The project management team monitors progress toward project deliverables, accomplishments that are a source of pride for team members, and interpersonal issues.
Q

Facilitation

Facilitation is the ability to effectively guide a group event to a successful decision, solution or conclusion. A good facilitator ensures effective participation and inclusion.
Q

Context diagrams

The context diagram is an example of a scope model. Context diagrams visually depict the product scope by showing a business system (process, equipment, computer system, etc.), and how people and other systems (actors) interact with it. Context diagrams show inputs to the business system, the actor(s) providing the input, the outputs from the business system, and the actor(s) receiving the output.
Q

Prototypes

Prototyping is a method of obtaining early feedback on requirements by providing a working model of the expected product before actually building it. Since a prototype is tangible, it allows stakeholders to experiment with a model of the final product rather than being limited to discussing abstract representations of their requirements. Prototypes support the concept of progressive elaboration in iterative cycles of mock-up creation, user experimentation, feedback generation, and prototype revision. When enough feedback cycles have been performed, the requirements obtained from the prototype are sufficiently complete to move to a design or build phase. Storyboards are used in a variety of industries, such as film, advertising, instructional design, and on agile and other software development projects. In software development, storyboards use mock-ups to show navigation paths through web pages, screens, or other user interfaces.
Q

Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.
Q

Requirements traceability matrix

The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them. The implementation of a requirements traceability matrix helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives. It provides a means to track requirements throughout the project life cycle, helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. Finally, it provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.
5.3
Q
Q
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
Q

Quality management plan

The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how the organization’s quality policies will be implemented. It describes how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project. The quality management plan may be formal or informal, detailed, or broadly framed. The style and detail of the quality management plan are determined by the requirements of the project. The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. The benefits of this review can include a sharper focus on the project’s value proposition and reductions in costs and in the frequency of schedule overruns that were caused by rework.
Q

Project life cycle description

The project life cycle determines the series of phases that a project passes through from its inception to the end of the project.
Q

Development approach

Development approach is the method used to create and evolve the product, service, or result during the project life cycle, such as predictive, iterative, incremental, agile, or a hybrid method.
Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
Q
Q

Alternatives analysis

Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and make-rent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.
Q

Scope management plan

The scope management plan is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified. The scope management plan is a major input into the Develop Project Management Plan process, and the other scope management processes.
Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
Q

Alternatives generation

Alternatives generation is a technique used to develop as many potential options as possible in order to identify different approaches to execute and perform the work of the project. A variety of general management techniques can be used, such as brainstorming, lateral thinking, analysis of alternatives, etc.
Q

Product analysis

For projects that have a product as a deliverable, as opposed to a service or result, product analysis can be an effective tool. Each application area has one or more generally accepted methods for translating high-level product descriptions into tangible deliverables. Product analysis includes techniques such as product breakdown, systems analysis, requirements analysis, systems engineering, value engineering, and value analysis.
Q

Project scope statement

The project scope statement is the description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints. The project scope statement documents the entire scope, including project and product scope. It describes, in detail, the project’s deliverables and the work required to create those deliverables. It also provides a common understanding of the project scope among project stakeholders. It may contain explicit scope exclusions that can assist in managing stakeholder expectations. It enables the project team to perform more detailed planning, guides the project team’s work during execution, and provides the baseline for evaluating whether requests for changes or additional work are contained within or outside the project’s boundaries.
5.4
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
Q

Quality management plan

The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how the organization’s quality policies will be implemented. It describes how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project. The quality management plan may be formal or informal, detailed, or broadly framed. The style and detail of the quality management plan are determined by the requirements of the project. The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. The benefits of this review can include a sharper focus on the project’s value proposition and reductions in costs and in the frequency of schedule overruns that were caused by rework.
Q

Project life cycle description

The project life cycle determines the series of phases that a project passes through from its inception to the end of the project.
Q

Development approach

Development approach is the method used to create and evolve the product, service, or result during the project life cycle, such as predictive, iterative, incremental, agile, or a hybrid method.
Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
Q
Q

Alternatives analysis

Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and make-rent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.
Q

Scope management plan

The scope management plan is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified. The scope management plan is a major input into the Develop Project Management Plan process, and the other scope management processes.
Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
Q

Alternatives generation

Alternatives generation is a technique used to develop as many potential options as possible in order to identify different approaches to execute and perform the work of the project. A variety of general management techniques can be used, such as brainstorming, lateral thinking, analysis of alternatives, etc.
Q

Product analysis

For projects that have a product as a deliverable, as opposed to a service or result, product analysis can be an effective tool. Each application area has one or more generally accepted methods for translating high-level product descriptions into tangible deliverables. Product analysis includes techniques such as product breakdown, systems analysis, requirements analysis, systems engineering, value engineering, and value analysis.
Q

Project scope statement

The project scope statement is the description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints. The project scope statement documents the entire scope, including project and product scope. It describes, in detail, the project’s deliverables and the work required to create those deliverables. It also provides a common understanding of the project scope among project stakeholders. It may contain explicit scope exclusions that can assist in managing stakeholder expectations. It enables the project team to perform more detailed planning, guides the project team’s work during execution, and provides the baseline for evaluating whether requests for changes or additional work are contained within or outside the project’s boundaries.
Q

Decomposition

Decomposition is a technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts. The work package is the work defined at the lowest level of the WBS for which cost and duration can be estimated and managed. The level of decomposition is often guided by the degree of control needed to effectively manage the project. The level of detail for work packages will vary with the size and complexity of the project.
Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
Q

Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.
Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
6.1
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Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.
Q

Scope management plan

The scope management plan is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified. The scope management plan is a major input into the Develop Project Management Plan process, and the other scope management processes.
Q

Development approach

Development approach is the method used to create and evolve the product, service, or result during the project life cycle, such as predictive, iterative, incremental, agile, or a hybrid method.
Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
Q

Schedule management plan

The schedule management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds.
Q

Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
6.2
Q

6.2 Define Activities

Define Activities is the process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables. The key benefit of this process is to break down work packages into activities that provide a basis for estimating, scheduling, executing, monitoring, and controlling the project work.
Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
Q

Activity list

The activity list is a comprehensive list that includes all schedule activities required on the project. The activity list also includes the activity identifier and a scope of work description for each activity in sufficient detail to ensure that project team members understand what work is required to be completed. Each activity should have a unique title that describes its place in the schedule, even if that activity title is displayed outside the context of the project schedule.
Q

Rolling wave planning

Rolling wave planning is an iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level. It is a form of progressive elaboration. Therefore, work can exist at various levels of detail depending on where it is in the project life cycle. During early strategic planning, when information is less defined, work packages may be decomposed to the known level of detail. As more is known about the upcoming events in the near term, work packages can be decomposed into activities.
Q

Activity attributes

Activities, distinct from milestones, have durations, during which the work of that activity is performed, and may have resources and costs associated with that work. Activity attributes extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity. The components for each activity evolve over time. During the initial stages of the project, they include the activity identifier (ID), WBS ID, and activity label or name, and when completed, may include activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags (Section 6.3.2.3), resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions. Activity attributes can be used to identify the person responsible for executing the work, geographic area, or place where the work has to be performed, the project calendar the activity is assigned to, and activity type such as level of effort (often abbreviated as LOE), discrete effort, and apportioned effort. Activity attributes are used for schedule development and for selecting, ordering, and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports. The number of attributes varies by application area.
Q

Milestone list

A milestone is a significant point or event in a project. A milestone list is a list identifying all project milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory, such as those required by contract, or optional, such as those based upon historical information. Milestones are similar to regular schedule activities, with the same structure and attributes, but they have zero duration because milestones represent a moment in time.
Q

Schedule baseline

A schedule baseline is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is accepted and approved by the appropriate stakeholders as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. During monitoring and controlling, the approved baseline dates are compared to the actual start and finish dates to determine whether variances have occurred. The schedule baseline is a component of the project management plan.
Q

Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.
6.3
Q

6.3 Sequence Activities

Sequence Activities is the process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities. The key benefit of this process is that it defines the logical sequence of work to obtain the greatest efficiency given all project constraints.
Q

Precedence diagramming method (PDM)

The precedence diagramming method (PDM) is a technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed. Activity-on-node (AON) is one method of representing a precedence diagram. This is the method used by most project management software packages. PDM includes four types of dependencies or logical relationships. A predecessor activity is an activity that logically comes before a dependent activity in a schedule. A successor activity is a dependent activity that logically comes after another activity in a schedule.
Q

Dependency determination and integration

Dependencies may be characterized by the following attributes: mandatory or discretionary, internal or external. Dependency has four attributes, but two can be applicable at the same time in the following ways: mandatory external dependencies, mandatory internal dependencies, discretionary external dependencies, or discretionary internal dependencies.
Q

Leads and lags

Leads and lags are refinements applied during network analysis to develop a viable schedule by adjusting the start time of the successor activities. Leads are used in limited circumstances to advance a successor activity with respect to the predecessor activity, and lags are used in limited circumstances where processes require a set period of time to elapse between the predecessors and successors without work or resource impact.
Q

Project management information system

Project management information system provides a standard set of tools for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and performance. It also allows the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, and presentations. Graphical capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information.
Q

Project schedule network diagrams

A project schedule network diagram is a graphical representation of the logical relationships, also referred to as dependencies, among the project schedule activities. Figure 6-11 illustrates a project schedule network diagram. A project schedule network diagram is produced manually or by using project management software. It can include full project details, or have one or more summary activities. A summary narrative can accompany the diagram and describe the basic approach used to sequence the activities. Any unusual activity sequences within the network should be fully described within the narrative.
6.4
Q

6.4 Estimate Activity Durations

Estimate Activity Durations is the process of estimating the number of work periods needed to complete
individual activities with estimated resources. The key benefit of this process is that it provides the amount of time each activity will take to complete, which is a major input into the Develop Schedule process.

Q
Q

Schedule management plan

The schedule management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds.
Q

Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.
Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
Q

Activity attributes

Activities, distinct from milestones, have durations, during which the work of that activity is performed, and may have resources and costs associated with that work. Activity attributes extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity. The components for each activity evolve over time. During the initial stages of the project, they include the activity identifier (ID), WBS ID, and activity label or name, and when completed, may include activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags (Section 6.3.2.3), resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions. Activity attributes can be used to identify the person responsible for executing the work, geographic area, or place where the work has to be performed, the project calendar the activity is assigned to, and activity type such as level of effort (often abbreviated as LOE), discrete effort, and apportioned effort. Activity attributes are used for schedule development and for selecting, ordering, and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports. The number of attributes varies by application area.
Q

Activity list

The activity list is a comprehensive list that includes all schedule activities required on the project. The activity list also includes the activity identifier and a scope of work description for each activity in sufficient detail to ensure that project team members understand what work is required to be completed. Each activity should have a unique title that describes its place in the schedule, even if that activity title is displayed outside the context of the project schedule.
Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.
Q

Milestone list

A milestone is a significant point or event in a project. A milestone list is a list identifying all project milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory, such as those required by contract, or optional, such as those based upon historical information. Milestones are similar to regular schedule activities, with the same structure and attributes, but they have zero duration because milestones represent a moment in time.
Q

Project team assignments

The project is staffed when appropriate people have been assigned to the team. The documentation of these assignments can include a project team directory, memos to team members, and names inserted into other parts of the project management plan, such as project organization charts and schedules.
Q

Resource breakdown structure

The resource breakdown structure is a hierarchical representation of resources by category and type. Examples of resource categories include labor, material, equipment, and supplies. Resource types may include the skill level, grade level, or other information as appropriate to the project. The resource breakdown structure is useful for organizing and reporting project schedule data with resource utilization information.
Q

Resource calendars

A resource calendar is a calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available. Information on which resources (such as human resources, equipment, and material) are potentially available during a planned activity period, is used for estimating resource utilization. Resource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be available during the project. This information may be at the activity or project level. This knowledge includes consideration of attributes such as resource experience and/or skill level, as well as various geographical locations from which the resources originate and when they may be available.
Q

Resource requirements

Resource requirements are the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.
Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
Q

Analogous estimating

Analogous estimating is a technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project. Analogous estimating uses parameters from a previous, similar project, such as duration, budget, size, weight, and complexity, as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future project. When estimating durations, this technique relies on the actual duration of previous, similar projects as the basis for estimating the duration of the current project. It is a gross value estimating approach sometimes adjusted for known differences in project complexity. Analogous duration estimating is frequently used to estimate project duration when there is limited amount of detailed information about the project.
Q

Parametric estimating

Parametric estimating is an estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters. Parametric estimating uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (e.g., square footage in construction) to calculate an estimate for activity parameters, such as cost, budget, and duration. Activity durations can be quantitatively determined by multiplying the quantity of work to be performed by labor hours per unit of work. This technique can produce higher levels of accuracy depending upon the sophistication and underlying data built into the model. Parametric time estimates can be applied to a total project or to segments of a project, in conjunction with other estimating methods.
Q

Three-point estimating

The accuracy of single-point activity duration estimates may be improved by considering estimation uncertainty and risk. This concept originated with the program evaluation and review technique (PERT). PERT uses three estimates to define an approximate range for an activity’s duration. Duration estimates based on three points with an assumed distribution provide an expected duration and clarify the range of uncertainty around the expected duration.
Q

Bottom-up estimating

Bottom-up estimating is a method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the lower-level components of the WBS. When an activity cannot be estimated with a reasonable degree of confidence, the work within the activity is decomposed into more detail. The resource needs are estimated. These estimates are then aggregated into a total quantity for each of the activity’s resources. Activities may or may not have dependencies between them that can affect the application and use of resources. If there are dependencies, this pattern of resource usage is reflected and documented in the estimated requirements of the activity.
Q

Alternatives analysis

Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and make-rent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.
Q

Reserve analysis

Duration estimates may include contingency reserves, sometimes referred to as time reserves or buffers, into the project schedule to account for schedule uncertainty. Contingency reserves are the estimated duration within the schedule baseline, which is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigation responses are developed. Contingency reserves are associated with the “known-unknowns,” which may be estimated to account for this unknown amount of rework. The contingency reserve may be a percentage of the estimated activity duration, a fixed number of work periods, or may be developed by using quantitative analysis methods such as Monte Carlo simulation. Contingency reserves may be separated from the individual activities and aggregated into buffers. As more precise information about the project becomes available, the contingency reserve may be used, reduced, or eliminated. Contingency should be clearly identified in schedule documentation. Estimates may also be produced for the amount of management reserve of time for the project. Management reserves are a specified amount of the project duration withheld for management control purposes and are reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project. Management reserves are intended to address the “unknown-unknowns” that can affect a project. Management reserve is not included in the schedule baseline, but it is part of the overall project duration requirements. Depending on contract terms, use of management reserves may require a change to the schedule baseline.
Q

Decision making

Decision making techniques are used to select a course of action from different alternatives. There are two decision-making tools and techniques.
Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
Q

Duration estimates

Duration estimates provide quantitative assessments of project durations, ideally expressed as a range, indicating the degree of risk, where a structured review of the documents may indicate that the current estimate is insufficient and poses a risk to the project. Duration estimates provide the starting point from which schedule variability is evaluated.
Q

Basis of estimates

The amount and type of additional details supporting the cost estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail, the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the cost estimate was derived.
Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
Q

Activity attributes

Activities, distinct from milestones, have durations, during which the work of that activity is performed, and may have resources and costs associated with that work. Activity attributes extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity. The components for each activity evolve over time. During the initial stages of the project, they include the activity identifier (ID), WBS ID, and activity label or name, and when completed, may include activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags (Section 6.3.2.3), resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions. Activity attributes can be used to identify the person responsible for executing the work, geographic area, or place where the work has to be performed, the project calendar the activity is assigned to, and activity type such as level of effort (often abbreviated as LOE), discrete effort, and apportioned effort. Activity attributes are used for schedule development and for selecting, ordering, and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports. The number of attributes varies by application area.
Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.
6.5
Q
Q

Schedule management plan

The schedule management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds.
Q

Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.
Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
Q

Activity attributes

Activities, distinct from milestones, have durations, during which the work of that activity is performed, and may have resources and costs associated with that work. Activity attributes extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity. The components for each activity evolve over time. During the initial stages of the project, they include the activity identifier (ID), WBS ID, and activity label or name, and when completed, may include activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags (Section 6.3.2.3), resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions. Activity attributes can be used to identify the person responsible for executing the work, geographic area, or place where the work has to be performed, the project calendar the activity is assigned to, and activity type such as level of effort (often abbreviated as LOE), discrete effort, and apportioned effort. Activity attributes are used for schedule development and for selecting, ordering, and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports. The number of attributes varies by application area.
Q

Activity list

The activity list is a comprehensive list that includes all schedule activities required on the project. The activity list also includes the activity identifier and a scope of work description for each activity in sufficient detail to ensure that project team members understand what work is required to be completed. Each activity should have a unique title that describes its place in the schedule, even if that activity title is displayed outside the context of the project schedule.
Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
Q

Basis of estimates

The amount and type of additional details supporting the cost estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail, the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the cost estimate was derived.
Q

Duration estimates

Duration estimates provide quantitative assessments of project durations, ideally expressed as a range, indicating the degree of risk, where a structured review of the documents may indicate that the current estimate is insufficient and poses a risk to the project. Duration estimates provide the starting point from which schedule variability is evaluated.
Q

Milestone list

A milestone is a significant point or event in a project. A milestone list is a list identifying all project milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory, such as those required by contract, or optional, such as those based upon historical information. Milestones are similar to regular schedule activities, with the same structure and attributes, but they have zero duration because milestones represent a moment in time.
Q

Project schedule network diagrams

A project schedule network diagram is a graphical representation of the logical relationships, also referred to as dependencies, among the project schedule activities. Figure 6-11 illustrates a project schedule network diagram. A project schedule network diagram is produced manually or by using project management software. It can include full project details, or have one or more summary activities. A summary narrative can accompany the diagram and describe the basic approach used to sequence the activities. Any unusual activity sequences within the network should be fully described within the narrative.
Q

Project team assignments

The project is staffed when appropriate people have been assigned to the team. The documentation of these assignments can include a project team directory, memos to team members, and names inserted into other parts of the project management plan, such as project organization charts and schedules.
Q

Resource calendars

A resource calendar is a calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available. Information on which resources (such as human resources, equipment, and material) are potentially available during a planned activity period, is used for estimating resource utilization. Resource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be available during the project. This information may be at the activity or project level. This knowledge includes consideration of attributes such as resource experience and/or skill level, as well as various geographical locations from which the resources originate and when they may be available.
Q

Resource requirements

Resource requirements are the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.
Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
Q

Agreements

A procurement agreement includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies regarding what the seller is to perform or provide. It is the project management team’s responsibility to make certain that all agreements meet the specific needs of the project while adhering to organizational procurement policies. Depending upon the application area, an agreement can also be called an understanding, a contract, a subcontract, or a purchase order. Regardless of the document’s complexity, a contract is a mutually binding legal agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified products, services, or results, and obligates the buyer to compensate the seller. A contract is a legal relationship subject to remedy in the courts.
Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
Q

Schedule network analysis

Schedule network analysis is a technique that generates the project schedule model. It employs various analytical techniques, such as critical path method, critical chain method, what-if analysis, and resource optimization techniques to calculate the early and late start and finish dates for the uncompleted portions of project activities. Some network paths may have points of path convergence or path divergence that can be identified and used in schedule compression analysis or other analyses.
Q

Critical path method

The critical path method is a method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model. This schedule network analysis technique calculates the early start, early finish, late start, and late finish dates for all activities without regard for any resource limitations by performing a forward and backward pass analysis through the schedule network. The critical path is the sequence of activities that represents the longest path through a project, which determines the shortest possible project duration. The resulting early and late start and finish dates are not necessarily the project schedule, rather they indicate the time periods within which activity could be executed, using parameters entered in the schedule model for activity durations, logical relationships, leads, lags and other known constraints. The critical path method is used to calculate the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model.
Q

Resource optimization

Resource optimization techniques can be used to adjust the schedule model due to demand and supply of resources.
Q

Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
Q

What-if scenario analysis

What-if scenario analysis is the process of evaluating scenarios in order to predict their effect on project objectives.
Q

Simulation

Simulation is an analytical technique that models the combined effect of uncertainties to evaluate their potential impact on objectives.
Q

Leads and lags

Leads and lags are refinements applied during network analysis to develop a viable schedule by adjusting the start time of the successor activities. Leads are used in limited circumstances to advance a successor activity with respect to the predecessor activity, and lags are used in limited circumstances where processes require a set period of time to elapse between the predecessors and successors without work or resource impact.
Q

Schedule compression

Schedule compression techniques are used to shorten the schedule duration without reducing the project scope, in order to meet schedule constraints, imposed dates, or other schedule objectives.
Q

Project management information system

Project management information system provides a standard set of tools for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and performance. It also allows the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, and presentations. Graphical capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information.
Q

Agile release planning

Agile release planning provides a high-level summary time-line of the release schedule (typically 3 to 6 months) based on the product roadmap and the product vision for the product's evolution. It also determines the number of iterations or sprints in the release, and allows the product owner and team to decide how much needs to be developed and how long it will take to have a releasable product based on business goals, dependencies, and impediments.
Q

Schedule baseline

A schedule baseline is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is accepted and approved by the appropriate stakeholders as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. During monitoring and controlling, the approved baseline dates are compared to the actual start and finish dates to determine whether variances have occurred. The schedule baseline is a component of the project management plan.
Q

Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.
Q

Schedule data

The schedule data for the project schedule model is the collection of information for describing and controlling the schedule. The schedule data includes at least the schedule milestones, schedule activities, activity attributes, and documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints. The amount of additional data varies by application area.
Q

Project calendars

A project calendar identifies working days and shifts that are available for scheduled activities. It distinguishes time periods in days or parts of days that are available to complete scheduled activities from time periods that are not available. A schedule model may require more than one project calendar to allow for different work periods for some activities to calculate the project schedule. The project calendars may be updated.
Q

Change requests

The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.
Q

Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.
Q

Schedule management plan

The schedule management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds.
Q

Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.
Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
Q

Activity attributes

Activities, distinct from milestones, have durations, during which the work of that activity is performed, and may have resources and costs associated with that work. Activity attributes extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity. The components for each activity evolve over time. During the initial stages of the project, they include the activity identifier (ID), WBS ID, and activity label or name, and when completed, may include activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags (Section 6.3.2.3), resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions. Activity attributes can be used to identify the person responsible for executing the work, geographic area, or place where the work has to be performed, the project calendar the activity is assigned to, and activity type such as level of effort (often abbreviated as LOE), discrete effort, and apportioned effort. Activity attributes are used for schedule development and for selecting, ordering, and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports. The number of attributes varies by application area.
Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
Q

Duration estimates

Duration estimates provide quantitative assessments of project durations, ideally expressed as a range, indicating the degree of risk, where a structured review of the documents may indicate that the current estimate is insufficient and poses a risk to the project. Duration estimates provide the starting point from which schedule variability is evaluated.
Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.
Q

Resource requirements

Resource requirements are the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.
Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
7.1
Q
Q
Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.
Q

Schedule management plan

The schedule management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds.
Q

Risk management plan

The risk management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed. Key elements of the risk management plan that contribute to the Identify Risks process are the assignments of roles and responsibilities, provision for risk management activities in the budget and schedule, and categories of risk, which are sometimes expressed as a risk breakdown structure.
Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
Q

Alternatives analysis

Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and make-rent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.
Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
Q

Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
7.2
Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.
Q

Cost management plan

The cost management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how the project costs will be planned, structured, and controlled. The cost management processes and their associated tools and techniques are documented in the cost management plan.
Q

Quality management plan

The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how the organization’s quality policies will be implemented. It describes how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project. The quality management plan may be formal or informal, detailed, or broadly framed. The style and detail of the quality management plan are determined by the requirements of the project. The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. The benefits of this review can include a sharper focus on the project’s value proposition and reductions in costs and in the frequency of schedule overruns that were caused by rework.
Q

Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.
Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.
Q

Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.
Q

Resource requirements

Resource requirements are the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.
Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
Q

Analogous estimating

Analogous estimating is a technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project. Analogous estimating uses parameters from a previous, similar project, such as duration, budget, size, weight, and complexity, as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future project. When estimating durations, this technique relies on the actual duration of previous, similar projects as the basis for estimating the duration of the current project. It is a gross value estimating approach sometimes adjusted for known differences in project complexity. Analogous duration estimating is frequently used to estimate project duration when there is limited amount of detailed information about the project.
Q

Parametric estimating

Parametric estimating is an estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters. Parametric estimating uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (e.g., square footage in construction) to calculate an estimate for activity parameters, such as cost, budget, and duration. Activity durations can be quantitatively determined by multiplying the quantity of work to be performed by labor hours per unit of work. This technique can produce higher levels of accuracy depending upon the sophistication and underlying data built into the model. Parametric time estimates can be applied to a total project or to segments of a project, in conjunction with other estimating methods.
Q

Bottom-up estimating

Bottom-up estimating is a method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the lower-level components of the WBS. When an activity cannot be estimated with a reasonable degree of confidence, the work within the activity is decomposed into more detail. The resource needs are estimated. These estimates are then aggregated into a total quantity for each of the activity’s resources. Activities may or may not have dependencies between them that can affect the application and use of resources. If there are dependencies, this pattern of resource usage is reflected and documented in the estimated requirements of the activity.
Q

Three-point estimating

The accuracy of single-point activity duration estimates may be improved by considering estimation uncertainty and risk. This concept originated with the program evaluation and review technique (PERT). PERT uses three estimates to define an approximate range for an activity’s duration. Duration estimates based on three points with an assumed distribution provide an expected duration and clarify the range of uncertainty around the expected duration.
Q

Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
Q

Alternatives analysis

Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and make-rent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.
Q

Reserve analysis

Duration estimates may include contingency reserves, sometimes referred to as time reserves or buffers, into the project schedule to account for schedule uncertainty. Contingency reserves are the estimated duration within the schedule baseline, which is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigation responses are developed. Contingency reserves are associated with the “known-unknowns,” which may be estimated to account for this unknown amount of rework. The contingency reserve may be a percentage of the estimated activity duration, a fixed number of work periods, or may be developed by using quantitative analysis methods such as Monte Carlo simulation. Contingency reserves may be separated from the individual activities and aggregated into buffers. As more precise information about the project becomes available, the contingency reserve may be used, reduced, or eliminated. Contingency should be clearly identified in schedule documentation. Estimates may also be produced for the amount of management reserve of time for the project. Management reserves are a specified amount of the project duration withheld for management control purposes and are reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project. Management reserves are intended to address the “unknown-unknowns” that can affect a project. Management reserve is not included in the schedule baseline, but it is part of the overall project duration requirements. Depending on contract terms, use of management reserves may require a change to the schedule baseline.
Q

Cost of quality

Cost of quality includes all costs incurred over the life of the product by investment in preventing non-conformance to requirements, appraising the product or service for conformance to requirements, and failing to meet requirements (rework). Failure costs are often categorized into internal (found by the project) and external (found by the customer). Failure costs are also called cost of poor quality.
Q

Project management information system

Project management information system provides a standard set of tools for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and performance. It also allows the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, and presentations. Graphical capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information.
Q

Decision making

Decision making techniques are used to select a course of action from different alternatives. There are two decision-making tools and techniques.
Q

Voting

Voting is a collective decision-making technique and an assessment process having multiple alternatives with an expected outcome in the form of future actions. These techniques can be used to generate, classify, and prioritize product requirements. Can include making decisions based on unanimity, majority, or plurality.
Q

Cost estimates

Cost estimates are quantitative assessments of the likely costs for resources required to complete the activity. They include the identification and consideration of costing alternatives to initiate and complete the project.
Q

Basis of estimates

The amount and type of additional details supporting the cost estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail, the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the cost estimate was derived.
Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.
Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
7.3
Q
Q
Q

Cost management plan

The cost management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how the project costs will be planned, structured, and controlled. The cost management processes and their associated tools and techniques are documented in the cost management plan.
Q

Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.
Q

Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.
Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
Q

Basis of estimates

The amount and type of additional details supporting the cost estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail, the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the cost estimate was derived.
Q

Cost estimates

Cost estimates are quantitative assessments of the likely costs for resources required to complete the activity. They include the identification and consideration of costing alternatives to initiate and complete the project.
Q

Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.
Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
Q

Business documents

Business documents (business case and benefits management plan) are two key documents that are interdependent and initially developed prior to the project. The project manager is responsible for maintaining and iteratively updating business documents throughout the project.
Q

Business case

The business case or similar document describes the necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether or not the project is worth the required investment. It is commonly used for decision making by managers or executives above the project level. Typically, the business need and the cost-benefit analysis are contained in the business case to justify and establish boundaries for the project, and such analysis is usually completed by a business analyst using various stakeholder inputs. The sponsor should agree to the scope and limitations of the business case.
Q

Benefits management plan

The benefits management plan is the documented explanation defining the processes for creating, maximizing, and sustaining the benefits provided by a project.
Q

Agreements

A procurement agreement includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies regarding what the seller is to perform or provide. It is the project management team’s responsibility to make certain that all agreements meet the specific needs of the project while adhering to organizational procurement policies. Depending upon the application area, an agreement can also be called an understanding, a contract, a subcontract, or a purchase order. Regardless of the document’s complexity, a contract is a mutually binding legal agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified products, services, or results, and obligates the buyer to compensate the seller. A contract is a legal relationship subject to remedy in the courts.
Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
Q

Cost aggregation

Cost estimates are aggregated by work packages in accordance with the WBS. The work package cost estimates are then aggregated for the higher component levels of the WBS (such as control accounts) and ultimately for the entire project.
Q

Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
Q

Reserve analysis

Duration estimates may include contingency reserves, sometimes referred to as time reserves or buffers, into the project schedule to account for schedule uncertainty. Contingency reserves are the estimated duration within the schedule baseline, which is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigation responses are developed. Contingency reserves are associated with the “known-unknowns,” which may be estimated to account for this unknown amount of rework. The contingency reserve may be a percentage of the estimated activity duration, a fixed number of work periods, or may be developed by using quantitative analysis methods such as Monte Carlo simulation. Contingency reserves may be separated from the individual activities and aggregated into buffers. As more precise information about the project becomes available, the contingency reserve may be used, reduced, or eliminated. Contingency should be clearly identified in schedule documentation. Estimates may also be produced for the amount of management reserve of time for the project. Management reserves are a specified amount of the project duration withheld for management control purposes and are reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project. Management reserves are intended to address the “unknown-unknowns” that can affect a project. Management reserve is not included in the schedule baseline, but it is part of the overall project duration requirements. Depending on contract terms, use of management reserves may require a change to the schedule baseline.
Q

Historical information review

Reviewing historical information can assist in developing parametric estimates or analogous estimates. Historical information may include project characteristics (parameters) to develop mathematical models to predict total project costs.
Q

Funding limit reconciliation

The expenditure of funds should be reconciled with any funding limits on the commitment of funds for the project. A variance between the funding limits and the planned expenditures will sometimes necessitate the rescheduling of work to level out the rate of expenditures. This is accomplished by placing imposed date constraints for work into the project schedule.
Q

Financing

Financing entails aquiring funding for projects. It is common for long-term infrastructure, industrial, and public services projects to seek external sources of funds. If a project is funded externally, the funding entity may have certain requirements that are required to be met.
Q

Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.
Q

Project funding requirements

Total funding requirements and periodic funding requirements (e.g., quarterly, annually) are derived from the cost baseline. The cost baseline will include projected expenditures plus anticipated liabilities. Funding often occurs in incremental amounts that are not continuous. The total funds required are those included in the cost baseline, plus management reserves, if any.
Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
Q

Cost estimates

Cost estimates are quantitative assessments of the likely costs for resources required to complete the activity. They include the identification and consideration of costing alternatives to initiate and complete the project.
Q

Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.
Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
8.1
Q
Q

Project management plan

The project management plan integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary management plans and baselines from the planning processes.
Q

Requirements management plan

The requirements management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed. The project manager chooses the most effective relationship for the project and documents this approach in the requirements management plan. Many of the requirements management plan components are based on that relationship.
Q

Risk management plan

The risk management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed. Key elements of the risk management plan that contribute to the Identify Risks process are the assignments of roles and responsibilities, provision for risk management activities in the budget and schedule, and categories of risk, which are sometimes expressed as a risk breakdown structure.
Q

Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.
Q

Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.
Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
Q

Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.
Q

Requirements traceability matrix

The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them. The implementation of a requirements traceability matrix helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives. It provides a means to track requirements throughout the project life cycle, helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. Finally, it provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.
Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
Q

Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.
Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
Q

Data gathering

Data gathering is a technique used to collect data and information from various sources for the purposes of later analyzing the data and assessing information.
Q

Benchmarking

Benchmarking involves comparing actual or planned practices, such as processes and operations, to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance. The organizations compared during benchmarking can be internal or external.
Q

Brainstorming

Brainstorming is a common data-gathering technique that derives input from individuals and groups usually perceived as subject matter experts.
Q

Interviews

An interview is a formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly. It is typically performed by asking prepared and spontaneous questions and recording the responses. Interviews are often conducted on an individual basis between an interviewer and an interviewee, but may involve multiple interviewers and/or multiple interviewees. Interviewing experienced project participants, sponsors and other executives, and subject matter experts can aid in identifying and defining the features and functions of the desired product deliverables. Interviews are also useful for obtaining confidential information.
Q

Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
Q

Cost-benefit analysis

The primary benefits of meeting quality requirements include less rework, higher productivity, lower costs, increased stakeholder satisfaction, and increased profitability. A cost-benefit analysis for each quality activity compares the cost of the quality step to the expected benefit.
Q

Cost of quality

Cost of quality includes all costs incurred over the life of the product by investment in preventing non-conformance to requirements, appraising the product or service for conformance to requirements, and failing to meet requirements (rework). Failure costs are often categorized into internal (found by the project) and external (found by the customer). Failure costs are also called cost of poor quality.
Q

Decision making

Decision making techniques are used to select a course of action from different alternatives. There are two decision-making tools and techniques.
Q

Multicriteria decision analysis

Selection criteria are often used as a part of acquiring the project team. By use of a multicriteria decision analysis tool, criteria are developed and used to rate or score potential team members. The criteria are weighted according to the relative importance of the needs within the team.
Q

Data representation

Data representation is used to show graphic representations or other methods used to convey data and information. There are 15 data representation tools and techniques.
Q

Flowcharts

Flowcharts are also referred to as process maps because they display the sequence of steps and the branching possibilities that exist for a process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more outputs. Flowcharts show the activities, decision points, branching loops, parallel paths, and the overall order of processing by mapping the operational details of procedures that exist within a horizontal value chain. Flowcharts may prove useful in understanding and estimating the cost of quality for a process. Information is obtained by using the workflow branching logic and associated relative frequencies to estimate the expected monetary value for the conformance and non-conformance work required to deliver the expected conforming output. When flowcharts are used to represent the steps in a process, they are sometimes called process flows or process flow diagrams and they can be used for process improvement as well as identifying where quality defects can occur or where to incorporate quality checks.
Q

Logical data model

Logical data models are a visual representation of an organization's data, described in business language and independent of any specific technology. The logical data model can be used to identify where data integrity or other quality issues can arise.
Q

Matrix diagrams

A quality management and control tool used to perform data analysis within the organizational structure created in the matrix. The matrix diagram seeks to show the strengths of relationships between factors, causes, and objectives that exist between the rows and columns that form the matrix.
Q

Mind mapping

Mind mapping is a technique used to consolidate ideas created through individual brainstorming sessions into a single map to reflect commonality and differences in understanding and to generate new ideas.
Q

Test and inspection planning

During the planning phase, the project manager and the project team determine how to test or inspect the product, deliverable or service to meet the stakeholders' needs and expectations, as well as how to meet the goal for the product's performance and reliability. The tests and inspections are industry dependent and can include, for example, alpha and beta tests in software projects, strength tests in construction projects, inspection in manufacturing, and field tests and nondestructive tests in engineering.
Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
Q

Quality management plan

The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how the organization’s quality policies will be implemented. It describes how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project. The quality management plan may be formal or informal, detailed, or broadly framed. The style and detail of the quality management plan are determined by the requirements of the project. The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. The benefits of this review can include a sharper focus on the project’s value proposition and reductions in costs and in the frequency of schedule overruns that were caused by rework.
Q

Quality management plan

The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how the organization’s quality policies will be implemented. It describes how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project. The quality management plan may be formal or informal, detailed, or broadly framed. The style and detail of the quality management plan are determined by the requirements of the project. The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. The benefits of this review can include a sharper focus on the project’s value proposition and reductions in costs and in the frequency of schedule overruns that were caused by rework.
Q

Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.
Q

Risk management plan

The risk management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed. Key elements of the risk management plan that contribute to the Identify Risks process are the assignments of roles and responsibilities, provision for risk management activities in the budget and schedule, and categories of risk, which are sometimes expressed as a risk breakdown structure.
Q

Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.
Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.
Q

Requirements traceability matrix

The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them. The implementation of a requirements traceability matrix helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives. It provides a means to track requirements throughout the project life cycle, helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. Finally, it provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.
Q

Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.
9.1
Q
Q
Q

Quality management plan

The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how the organization’s quality policies will be implemented. It describes how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project. The quality management plan may be formal or informal, detailed, or broadly framed. The style and detail of the quality management plan are determined by the requirements of the project. The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. The benefits of this review can include a sharper focus on the project’s value proposition and reductions in costs and in the frequency of schedule overruns that were caused by rework.
Q

Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.
Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
Q

Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.
Q

Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.
Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
Q

Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.
Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
Q

Data representation

Data representation is used to show graphic representations or other methods used to convey data and information. There are 15 data representation tools and techniques.
Q

Hierarchical charts

Hierarchical charts are traditional organizational chart structures that can be used to show positions and relationships in a graphical, top-down format.
Q

Responsibility assignment matrix

Responsibility assignment matrix is a grid that shows the project resources assigned to each work package.
Q

Text oriented formats

Text oriented formats are documents that provide information such as responsibilities, authority, competencies, and qualifications. The documents are known by various names including position descriptions and role-responsibility-authority forms. These documents can be used as templates for future projects, especially when the information is updated throughout the current project by applying lessons learned.
Q

Organizational theory

Organizational theory provides information regarding the way in which people, teams, and organizational units behave. Effective use of common themes identified in organizational theory can shorten the amount of time, cost, and effort needed to create the Plan Resource Management process outputs and improve planning efficiency. It is important to recognize that different organizational structures have different individual response, individual performance, and personal relationship characteristics. Also, applicable organizational theories may recommend exercising a flexible leadership style that adapts to the changes in a team’s maturity level throughout the project life cycle.
Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
Q

Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.
Q

Team charter

Team charter is a document that records the team values, agreements, and operating guidelines, as well as establishing clear expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members.
Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
9.2
Q
Q
Q

Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.
Q

Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.
Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
Q

Activity attributes

Activities, distinct from milestones, have durations, during which the work of that activity is performed, and may have resources and costs associated with that work. Activity attributes extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity. The components for each activity evolve over time. During the initial stages of the project, they include the activity identifier (ID), WBS ID, and activity label or name, and when completed, may include activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags (Section 6.3.2.3), resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions. Activity attributes can be used to identify the person responsible for executing the work, geographic area, or place where the work has to be performed, the project calendar the activity is assigned to, and activity type such as level of effort (often abbreviated as LOE), discrete effort, and apportioned effort. Activity attributes are used for schedule development and for selecting, ordering, and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports. The number of attributes varies by application area.
Q

Activity attributes

Activities, distinct from milestones, have durations, during which the work of that activity is performed, and may have resources and costs associated with that work. Activity attributes extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity. The components for each activity evolve over time. During the initial stages of the project, they include the activity identifier (ID), WBS ID, and activity label or name, and when completed, may include activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags (Section 6.3.2.3), resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions. Activity attributes can be used to identify the person responsible for executing the work, geographic area, or place where the work has to be performed, the project calendar the activity is assigned to, and activity type such as level of effort (often abbreviated as LOE), discrete effort, and apportioned effort. Activity attributes are used for schedule development and for selecting, ordering, and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports. The number of attributes varies by application area.
Q

Activity list

The activity list is a comprehensive list that includes all schedule activities required on the project. The activity list also includes the activity identifier and a scope of work description for each activity in sufficient detail to ensure that project team members understand what work is required to be completed. Each activity should have a unique title that describes its place in the schedule, even if that activity title is displayed outside the context of the project schedule.
Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
Q

Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
Q

Cost estimates

Cost estimates are quantitative assessments of the likely costs for resources required to complete the activity. They include the identification and consideration of costing alternatives to initiate and complete the project.
Q

Resource calendars

A resource calendar is a calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available. Information on which resources (such as human resources, equipment, and material) are potentially available during a planned activity period, is used for estimating resource utilization. Resource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be available during the project. This information may be at the activity or project level. This knowledge includes consideration of attributes such as resource experience and/or skill level, as well as various geographical locations from which the resources originate and when they may be available.
Q

Risk register

The risk register is a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. It contains the outcomes of the other risk management processes as they are conducted, resulting in an increase in the level and type of information contained in the risk register over time. The preparation of the risk register begins in the Identify Risks process and then becomes available to other project management and risk management processes.
Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
Q

Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
Q

Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
Q

Bottom-up estimating

Bottom-up estimating is a method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the lower-level components of the WBS. When an activity cannot be estimated with a reasonable degree of confidence, the work within the activity is decomposed into more detail. The resource needs are estimated. These estimates are then aggregated into a total quantity for each of the activity’s resources. Activities may or may not have dependencies between them that can affect the application and use of resources. If there are dependencies, this pattern of resource usage is reflected and documented in the estimated requirements of the activity.
Q

Analogous estimating

Analogous estimating is a technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project. Analogous estimating uses parameters from a previous, similar project, such as duration, budget, size, weight, and complexity, as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future project. When estimating durations, this technique relies on the actual duration of previous, similar projects as the basis for estimating the duration of the current project. It is a gross value estimating approach sometimes adjusted for known differences in project complexity. Analogous duration estimating is frequently used to estimate project duration when there is limited amount of detailed information about the project.
Q

Parametric estimating

Parametric estimating is an estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters. Parametric estimating uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (e.g., square footage in construction) to calculate an estimate for activity parameters, such as cost, budget, and duration. Activity durations can be quantitatively determined by multiplying the quantity of work to be performed by labor hours per unit of work. This technique can produce higher levels of accuracy depending upon the sophistication and underlying data built into the model. Parametric time estimates can be applied to a total project or to segments of a project, in conjunction with other estimating methods.
Q

Alternatives analysis

Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment. They include using various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools (hand versus automated), and make-rent-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.
Q

Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
Q

Project management information system

Project management information system provides a standard set of tools for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and performance. It also allows the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, and presentations. Graphical capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information.
Q

Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
Q

Resource requirements

Resource requirements are the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.
Q

Basis of estimates

The amount and type of additional details supporting the cost estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail, the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the cost estimate was derived.
Q

Basis of estimates

The amount and type of additional details supporting the cost estimate vary by application area. Regardless of the level of detail, the supporting documentation should provide a clear and complete understanding of how the cost estimate was derived.
Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
Q

Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.
10.1
Q

10.1 Plan Communications Management

Plan Communications Management is the process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communications based on stakeholders' information needs and requirements, and available organizational assets. The key benefit of this process is that it identifies and documents the approach to communicate most effectively and efficiently with stakeholders.
Q
Q
Q

Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.
Q

Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.
Q

Stakeholder engagement plan

The stakeholder engagement plan is a component of the project management plan and identifies the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. The stakeholder engagement plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. This plan is used to determine the level of interactions of various stakeholders and—together with other documents—helps define a strategy for identifying and managing stakeholders throughout the project life cycle.
Q

Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
Q

Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.
Q

Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.
Q

Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.
Q

Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
Q

Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
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Communication requirements analysis

The analysis of the communication requirements determines the information needs of the project stakeholders. These requirements are defined by combining the type and format of information needed with an analysis of the value of that information. Project resources should be expended only on communicating information that contributes to the success of the project or where a lack of communication can lead to failure.
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Communication technology

The methods used to transfer information among project stakeholders may vary significantly. For example, a project team may use techniques from brief conversations to extended meetings, or from simple written documents to extensive materials (e.g., schedules, databases, and websites), which are accessible online as methods of communication.
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Communication models

The communication models used to facilitate communications and the exchange of information may vary from project to project and also within different stages of the same project. A basic communication model consists of two parties, defined as the sender and receiver. Medium is the technology medium and includes the mode of communication while noise includes any interference or barriers that might compromise the delivery of the message.
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Communication methods

There are several communication methods that are used to share information among project stakeholders. The choices of communication methods that are used for a project may need to be discussed and agreed upon by the project stakeholders based on communication requirements; cost and time constraints; and familiarity and availability of the required tools and resources that may be applicable to the communications process.
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Interpersonal and team skills

Interpersonal and team skills are skills used to effectively lead and interact with team members and other stakeholders.
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Communication styles assessment

Communication styles assessment is a technique used to identify the preferred communication method, format, and content for stakeholders for planned communication activities.
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Political awareness

Political awareness helps the project manager to plan communications based on the project environment as well as the organization's political environment. It concerns the recognition of power relationships, both formal and informal, and also the willingness to operate within these structures. Political awareness assists the project manager in engaging stakeholders appropriately to maintain their support throughout the project.
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Cultural awareness

Cultural awareness is an understanding of the differences between individuals, groups, and organizations and adapting the project's communication strategy in the contexts of these differences. This awareness and any consequent actions minimize misunderstandings and miscommunication that may result from cultural differences within the project's stakeholder community. Cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity help the project manager to plan communications based on the cultural differences and requirements of stakeholders and team members.
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Data representation

Data representation is used to show graphic representations or other methods used to convey data and information. There are 15 data representation tools and techniques.
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Stakeholder engagement assessment matrix

The stakeholder engagement assessment matrix is a matrix that compares current and desired stakeholder engagement levels.
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Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
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Communications management plan

The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The communications management plan can include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.
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Project management plan updates

The project management plan provides information on project baselines, communications management, and stakeholder engagement. Each of these areas may require updates based upon the current performance of the project against the performance measurement baseline (PMB). The performance measurement baseline is an approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared, and deviations are measured for management control. The performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include technical and quality parameters.
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Project schedule

The outputs from a schedule model are schedule presentations. The project schedule is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources. At a minimum, the project schedule includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity. If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established. This process usually occurs no later than the completion of the project management plan. A target project schedule model may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity. The project schedule presentation may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.
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Project documents updates

Project documents updates provide greater precision with respect to schedule, costs, and resource requirements to meet the defined project scope.
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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
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Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
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Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
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Stakeholder analysis

Stakeholder analysis is a technique of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative and qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken into account throughout the project. It identifies the interests, expectations, and influence of the stakeholders and relates them to the purpose of the project. It also helps to identify stakeholder relationships (with the project and other stakeholders) that can be leveraged to build coalitions and potential partnerships to enhance the project's chance of success, along with stakeholder relationships that need to be influenced differently at different stages of the project or phase.
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Meetings

Research alone may not provide specific information to formulate a procurement strategy without additional information interchange meetings with potential bidders. By collaborating with potential bidders, the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit while the supplier can influence a mutually beneficial approach or product.
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Risk management plan

The risk management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed. Key elements of the risk management plan that contribute to the Identify Risks process are the assignments of roles and responsibilities, provision for risk management activities in the budget and schedule, and categories of risk, which are sometimes expressed as a risk breakdown structure.
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Requirements management plan

The requirements management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed. The project manager chooses the most effective relationship for the project and documents this approach in the requirements management plan. Many of the requirements management plan components are based on that relationship.
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Schedule management plan

The schedule management plan is a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. The schedule management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds.
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Cost management plan

The cost management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how the project costs will be planned, structured, and controlled. The cost management processes and their associated tools and techniques are documented in the cost management plan.
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Quality management plan

The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how the organization’s quality policies will be implemented. It describes how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project. The quality management plan may be formal or informal, detailed, or broadly framed. The style and detail of the quality management plan are determined by the requirements of the project. The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. The benefits of this review can include a sharper focus on the project’s value proposition and reductions in costs and in the frequency of schedule overruns that were caused by rework.
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Resource management plan

The resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project resources should be defined, obtained, assigned, managed, and eventually released. The resource management plan and any subsequent revisions are also inputs into the Develop Project Management Plan process.
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Risk management plan

The risk management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed. Key elements of the risk management plan that contribute to the Identify Risks process are the assignments of roles and responsibilities, provision for risk management activities in the budget and schedule, and categories of risk, which are sometimes expressed as a risk breakdown structure.
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Scope baseline

The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. It is a component of the project management plan.
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Schedule baseline

A schedule baseline is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is accepted and approved by the appropriate stakeholders as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. During monitoring and controlling, the approved baseline dates are compared to the actual start and finish dates to determine whether variances have occurred. The schedule baseline is a component of the project management plan.
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Cost baseline

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets for the different schedule activities.
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Project documents

Project documents include, but are not limited to Assumptions log, Work performance reports, Earned value reports, Network diagrams, Baselines, and Other project information proven to be valuable in identifying risks.
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Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
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Assumption log

High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints are normally identified in the business case before the project is initiated and will flow into the project charter. Lower-level activity and task assumptions are generated throughout the project such as defining technical specifications, estimates, the schedule, risks, etc. The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and constraints throughout the project.
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Cost estimates

Cost estimates are quantitative assessments of the likely costs for resources required to complete the activity. They include the identification and consideration of costing alternatives to initiate and complete the project.
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Duration estimates

Duration estimates provide quantitative assessments of project durations, ideally expressed as a range, indicating the degree of risk, where a structured review of the documents may indicate that the current estimate is insufficient and poses a risk to the project. Duration estimates provide the starting point from which schedule variability is evaluated.
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Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.
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Issue log

Issues arise in the course of managing the project team. An issue log can be used to document and monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.
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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.
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Lessons learned register

The lessons learned register is created as an output of the Manage Project Knowledge process (4.4 Manage Project Knowledge) and is used as an input thereafter while being updated in many processes throughout the project. The lessons learned register can include the category and description of the situation. It may also include the impact, recommendations, and proposed actions associated with the situation. It may also record challenges, problems realized, risks and opportunities, or other content as appropriate.
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Requirements documentation

Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments.
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Resource requirements

Resource requirements are the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.
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Stakeholder register

A stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders. The stakeholder register should be consulted and updated on a regular basis, as stakeholders may change—or new ones identified—throughout the life cycle of the project.
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Agreements

A procurement agreement includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies regarding what the seller is to perform or provide. It is the project management team’s responsibility to make certain that all agreements meet the specific needs of the project while adhering to organizational procurement policies. Depending upon the application area, an agreement can also be called an understanding, a contract, a subcontract, or a purchase order. Regardless of the document’s complexity, a contract is a mutually binding legal agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified products, services, or results, and obligates the buyer to compensate the seller. A contract is a legal relationship subject to remedy in the courts.
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Procurement documentation

Procurement documents are used to solicit proposals from prospective sellers. Terms such as bid, tender, or quotation are generally used when the seller selection decision will be based on price (as when buying commercial or standard items), while a term such as proposal is generally used when other considerations, such as technical capability or technical approach are paramount. Common terms are in use for different types of procurement documents and may include request for information (RFI), invitation for bid (IFB), request for proposal (RFP), request for quotation (RFQ), tender notice, invitation for negotiation, and invitation for seller’s initial response. Specific procurement terminology used may vary by industry and location of the procurement.
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Enterprise environmental factors

Enterprise environmental factors refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome.
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Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. They include any artifact, practice, or knowledge from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to perform or govern the project. The process assets also include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information. Organizational process assets may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets are inputs to most planning processes. Throughout the project, the project team members may update and add to the organizational assets as necessary. Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1) processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.
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Expert judgment

Expert judgment is often used to assess the inputs used to develop the project charter. Expert judgment is applied to all technical and management details during this process. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training and is available from many sources.
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Data gathering

Data gathering is a technique used to collect data and information from various sources for the purposes of later analyzing the data and assessing information.
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Brainstorming

Brainstorming is a common data-gathering technique that derives input from individuals and groups usually perceived as subject matter experts.
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Checklists

A checklist is a list of items, actions, or points to be considered. It is often used as a reminder.
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Interviews

An interview is a formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly. It is typically performed by asking prepared and spontaneous questions and recording the responses. Interviews are often conducted on an individual basis between an interviewer and an interviewee, but may involve multiple interviewers and/or multiple interviewees. Interviewing experienced project participants, sponsors and other executives, and subject matter experts can aid in identifying and defining the features and functions of the desired product deliverables. Interviews are also useful for obtaining confidential information.
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Data analysis

Data analysis is techniques used to organize, assess, and evaluate data and information.
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Root cause analysis

Root cause analysis is an analytical technique used to determine the basic underlying reason that causes a variance, defect, or risk. A root cause may underlie more than one variance, defect, or risk.
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